Factors Affecting the Distribution of Information and Communication Technologies in an Egyptian Public University: A Case Study of the Faculty of Education at Ain Shams University
Keywords:ICT, distribution, the Egyptian public university system, regulations, organizational structure, administrative mechanisms).
Abstract: This research investigates the three main factors that affect the provision, access, and distribution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) among senior and junior faculty members in the Faculty of Education at Ain Shams University. These three factors include laws and regulations organizing the procurement of ICT in public universities in general and in the Faculty in particular, the organizational structure of the Faculty, in which the position of ICT can be determined, and the administrative and decision-making mechanisms that help distribute ICT across the departments of the faculty and the determinants that govern the execution of decisions related to ICT. The study conducted interviews with the dean (provost) of the faculty, the three vice-deans (vice-provosts) and seventeen heads of faculty departments and secretaries. The study revealed that the current elected faculty administration has shown real progress. After the election of the new administration, distribution of technologies was carried out according to new demands that priority should be given to departments that had not gotten equipment in the previous year. Under the elected administration, the storekeeper himself calls the departments and informs their secretaries that the shipment of ICT is ready for distribution according to the needs of the departments.
Abd-El-Raheem, A.Y. (2006). The Implementation of E Learning in the Arab Universities: Challenges and Opportunities. http://apru2006.dir.u- tokyo.ac.jp/pdf/2c-3.pdf.
Al-Sayyid, M.F. (2010). Governance and Politics: A Comparison of Universities in Egypt in Universities in Crisis (the International Sociological Association).
Angel I. O. (2004). Solution is the Problem: a Story of Transitions and Opportunities in the Social Study of Information and Communication Technology Innovation, Actors, and Contexts, edited by Chrisanthi Avgerou, Claudio Ciborra, Oxford University Press. http://www.isa- sociology.org/universities-in-crisis/?p=474
Bauer, J., Kenton, J. (2005). Toward Technology Integration in the Schools: Why It isn't Happening, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4).
Bates, R. (2006). Educational Administration and Social Justice, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice (1)2, 141-156.
Becta (2006). The Becta Review 2006: Evidence on the Progress of ICT in Education’, UK: Becta. http://becta.org.uk/corporate/publications/documents/The_Becta_Revie w_2006.pdf.
Blankshtain, G. C. (2004). Modeling ICT Perceptions and Views of Urban Front-Liners, Urban Studies, 41(13).
Amin – Factors for Distributing ICT
Chen, D. (2004). Gender Equality and Economic Development, the Role of Information and Communication Technologies. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3285, April 2004.
Collis, B., M. J. (2001). A Flexible Learning in a Digital World: Experiences and Expectations. London: Kogan Page.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). (2004).
Moving Beijing Forward: Gaps and Challenges, Gender Responsive Information Society. http://www.unescap.org/esid/GAD/Events/Highlevel%20meeting%20S ep%202004/English/Nancy%20Hafkin.pdf
Egyptian Universities Network (EUN). About Us – Mission. n.d.. http://www.frcu.eun.eg/docs-n/e-mission.php.
El-Shenawi, N. (2005). “E-Learning, Challenges and Opportunities": The Case of Egypt. http://medforist.grenobleem.com/contenus/conference%20Tunisia%20I EBC%202005/papers/June24/10.pdf
Fahim, Y., Noha S. (2011). Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt. Prospects, Quarterly Review of Comparative Education 41(1), 47-67.
Fox, R., Yuen, A. (2007). Faculty Perceptions of ICT Benefits. in Learning through Technology, edited by P. Tsang, R. Kwan, and R. Fox, 1-10. New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing.
Fransman, M. (2010). The New ICT Ecosystem: Implications for Policy and Regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kageto, M. (2002). ICT Impact on Education: Effective ICT Utilization on Lessons. PowerPoint presentation, Nihon Fukushi University. http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/39458760.pdf.
Kessel, V. N. (2005). ICT Education Monitor: Eight years of ICT in Schools, the Netherlands, Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.
Kolar, N. (2012). Civil Disobedience and University Politics in Post- Revolution Egypt, Higher Education Blog. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/2012/04/civil-disobedience-and- university-politics-in-post-revolution-egypt/
Machin, S. (2006). New technologies in schools: Is there a pay off?, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labour.
RISE – International Journal of Sociology of Education, 3(2) 185
%20schools%3A%20Is%20there%20a%20pay%20off%3F%20%22. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT). (2013) ICT and Innovation in Egypt: Ready for More. http://xn--4gbrim.xn----
wgbh1c/Innovation/ICT_and_innovation_in_Egypt_Ready_for_more. Mohamed, M. A. (1997). The Organizational Sociology: An Approach to Legacy, Problems, Issue, and Methodology, Dar El-Maarefa El-
Network for IT-Research and Competence in Education (ITU). (2004).
“Pilot": ICT and school development. Oslo, Norway: University of
Oslo. http://www.ituarkiv.no/filearchive/ENG_PILOT_FV.pdf. Nesbitt, J. M. (2008). The Mainstreaming of University Life: A Critical Examination of Social Justice Policy at Four Canadian Universities, a dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Graduate
Studies For the PhD, university of Calgary, Alberta.
Nguyen, F., Frazee, J.P. (2009). Strategic Technology Planning in Higher
Education, Performance Improvement 48(7), 31-40.
OECD (2007). ICTs and Gender. Working Party on Information Society,
Committee for Information, Computer and Communications Policy,
Oliver, R. (2002). The Role of ICT in Higher Education for the 21st Century,
ICT as a Change Agent for Education. Paper presented at the HE21 Conference. Accessed April 7, 2013. http://www.karmayog.org/redirect/strred.asp?docId=23717.
Ouda, H. (2011). Planning the Institutional Change in the Egyptian University Education in the Light of the Prerequisites of Merging Information and Communication Technology in the Educational Process, A Dissertation Submitted to Department of Foundations of Education in total fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Ain-Shams University, Faculty of Education: Department of Foundations of Education.
Parri, J. (2006). Quality in Higher Education. Vadyba Management 2(11), 107-111. http://www.leidykla.eu/fileadmin/Vadyba/11/Janne_Parri.pdf. Reid, D.M. (1990). Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt.
Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.
Amin – Factors for Distributing ICT
Renes, S. L., Strange, A.T. (2011). Using Technology to Enhance Higher Education, Innovative High Education 36(3), 203-213.
Scott, W. R. (2001). Institutions and Organizations. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Scott, W. R., Meyer, J.W. (1983). The Organizational of Societal Sectors. In Organizational Environment: Ritual and Rationality, 129-53. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Revised version in The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, edited by Walter W. Powell, and Paul J. DiMaggio, 108-140. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Institute of National Planning. (2010). Youth in Egypt: Building Our Future. Egypt Human Development Report. Cairo, Egypt: UNDP and the Institute for National Planning.
Unwin, T. (2009). Information and Communication Technology for Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Zaky. R. (2002). The Middle Class: Final Farewell or Weak Return, the South Call, The Center for Studies and Researches of Developing Countries, Cairo University: the second edition, P: 133.
Zhao, J. J., M. W. Alexander, H. Perreault, L. Walgman, and A.D. Truell. (2009). Faculty and Student Use of Technologies, User Productivity, and User Preference in Distance Education, Journal of Education for Business 84(4), 206-212.
Zucker, L.G. (1977). The Role of Institutionalization in Cultural Persistence, American Sociological Review, 4(5). http://links.jstor.org/sici=0003- 1224%28197710%2942%3A5%3C726%3ATROIIC%3E2.O.CO%3B2-1