The Digital Divide in Classroom Technology Use: A Comparison of Three Schools

Matthew H. Rafalow

Abstract


While concerns about the “digital divide,” or access to technology, remain relevant for many schools, we do not yet fully know how often-expensive education technologies are employed across school contexts. In particular, few studies exist that evaluate how teacher beliefs about student social class and race-ethnicity, as well as institutional perceptions of the value of new technologies, inform everyday teacher practices with such technologies. Classroom observation and interviews were conducted with 5 teachers across three elementary schools that vary by race and class. Results indicated that teachers at middle/upper class schools encouraged dynamic uses of interactive whiteboards, while in the low-income school they functioned like traditional blackboards. Findings suggest that teacher beliefs and institutional perceptions inform how technologies are used in the classroom. In particular, beliefs about the meaning of student race and social class, as well as institutional goals for implementing new technologies, inform the extent to which students are granted agency to learn with new technologies.


Keywords


Education, Technology/New Media, Digital Divide, Teachers, Race, Class, Culture

Full Text:

PDF

References


Antonio, A., Horvat, E. (2002). Developing the Hadley Taste for College: Organizational Habitus and Aspirations for Elite College Attendance. Conference paper. Association for the Study of Higher Education.

Bourdieu, P. (1977). The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social science information, 16(6), 645. doi: 10.1177/053901847701600601

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bourdieu, P., Wacquant, L. (1992). An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Calarco, J. (2011). ’I Need Help!’ Social Class and Children’s Help-Seeking in Elementary School. American Sociological Review, 76(6), 862-882. doi: 10.1177/0003122411427177

RISE – International Journal of Sociology of Education, 3(1) 97

Couldry, N. (2003). Media Meta-capital: Extending the Range of Bourdieu’s Field Theory. Theory and Society, 32(5-6), 653-677. doi: 10.1023/B:RYSO.0000004915.37826.5d

Diamond, J., Randolph, A., Spillane, J. (2004). Teachers’ Expectations and Sense of Responsibility for Student Learning: The Importance of Race, Class, and Organizational Habitus. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 35(1), 75-98. doi: 10.1525/aeq.2004.35.1.75

DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E. (2004). From unequal access to differentiated use: A literature review and agenda for research on digital inequality. Pp. 355-400 in Social inequality, edited by K. Neckerman. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Douglas, J. D. (1976). Investigative social research: Individual and team field research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Emirbayer, M.,Johnson, V. (2008). Bourdieu and organizational analysis. Theory and Society, 37(1), 1-44. doi: 10.1007/s11186-007-9052-y

Finnigan, K. S. (2007). Do accountability policy sanctions influence teacher motivation? Lessons from Chicago’s low-performing schools. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 594-630. doi: 10.3102/0002831207306767

Gamoran, A., Weinstein, M. (1998). Differentiation and opportunity in restructured schools. American Journal of Education, 106(3), 385. doi:10.1086/444189

Hargittai, E. (2010). Digital Na(t)ives? Variation in Internet Skills and Uses among Members of the Net Generation. Sociological Inquiry, 80(1), 92-113. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-682X.2009.00317.x

Hargittai, E. (2004). Internet Access and Use in Context. New Media & Society, 6(1), 137-143. doi: 10.1177/1461444804042310

Hargittai, E. (2003). Serving Citizens’ Needs: Minimizing Hurdles to Accessing Government Information Online. IT & Society, 1(3), 27-41. Hargittai, E. (2000). Open Portals and Closed Gates? Channeling Content on

the World Wide Web. Poetics, 27(4), 233-254. doi: 10.1016/S0304-

X(00)00006-1

Heath, S. (1983). Ways with words. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Rafalow – Technology and Schools

Heubert, J. P., Hauser, R. M. 1998. High-stakes testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Hoffman, J. (2011). States Struggle With Minors’ Sexting. New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2012 (http://nytimes.com).

Horvat, E. Antonio, A. (1999). ‘Hey Those Shoes Are Out of Uniform’: African American Girls in an Elite High School and the Importance of Habitus. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 30(3), 317-342.

doi: 10.1525/aeq.1999.30.3.317

Johnson, D., Johnson, B. (2002). High stakes: children, testing, and failure in American schools. New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Keigher, A., Cross, F. (2010). Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the 2008-09 Teacher Follow-up Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statististics.

Kelley, C. (2002). Teacher motivation and school-based performance awards. Education Administration Quarterly, 38(3), 372-401. doi: 10.1177/0013161X02383004

Lamont, M., Lareau, A. (1988). Cultural Capital: Allusions, Gaps and Glissandos in Recent Theoretical Developments. Sociological Theory, 6(2), 153-168. doi: 10.2307/202113

Lareau, A. (2000). Home advantage: Social class and parental intervention in elementary education. New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lareau, A., Weininger, E. (2003). Cultural Capital in Educational Research: A Critical Assessment. Theory and Society, 32(5/6), 567-606. doi: 10.1023/B:RYSO.0000004951.04408.b0

McDonough, P. M. (1997). Choosing colleges: How social class and schools structure opportunity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Miners, Z. (2009). One Third of Teens Use Cellphones to Cheat in School.U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved November 25, 2012. (http://usnews.com).

RISE – International Journal of Sociology of Education, 3(1) 99

Mouza, C. (2009). Does Research-Based Professional Development Make a Difference? A Longitudinal Investigation of Teacher Learning in Technology Integration. Teachers College Record, 111(5), 1195- 1241.

NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration). (1995). Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the ‘Have Nots’ in Rural and Urban Americans. Washington, DC: US Dep. Commerce.

NTIA. (1998). Falling Through the Net II: New Data on the Digital Divide. Washington, DC: US Dep. Commerce.

NTIA. (1999). Falling Through the Net III: Defining the Digital Divide. Washington, DC: US Dep. Commerce.

NTIA. (2000). Falling Through the Net: Toward Digital Inclusion. Washington, DC: US Dep. Commerce.

Nichols, S., Berliner, D. (2007). Collateral damage: How high-stakes testing corrupts America’s schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Orfield, G., Kornhaber, M. (2001). Raising standards or raising barriers?: Inequality and high-stakes testing in public education. New York, NY: Century Foundation Press.

Ortutay, B. (2011). Survey: teens love cell phones; schools, not quite. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved November 25, 2012. (http://pewinternet.org).

Rice, J. K. (2003). The human costs of education reform: The case of school reconstitution. Educational Administration Quarterly 39(5), 635-666. doi: 10.1177/0013161X03257298

Swartz, M. J., V. W. Turner, and A. Tuden. (1966). Political Anthropology. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.

Snow, D. A., Anderson, L. (1993). Down on their luck: A study of homeless street people. University of California Press.

Snow, D., Benford, R. D., Anderson, L. (1986). Fieldwork Roles and Informational Yield: A Comparison of Alternative Settings and Roles. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 14(4), 377-408. doi: 10.1177/0098303986014004002

Warschaeur, M. (2000). Technology and school reform: A view from both sides of the track. Educational Policy Analysis Archives 8(4).

Rafalow – Technology and Schools

Warschaeur, M. (2003). Dissecting the ‘digital divide’: A case study in Egypt. The Information Society, 19(4), 297-304. doi: 10.1080/01972240390227877

Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Warschaeur, M. (2007). Information literacy in the laptop classroom. Teachers College Record 109(11), 2511-2540.

Zillien, N., Hargittai, E. (2009). Digital Distinction: Status-Specific Types of Internet Usage. Social Science Quarterly, 90(2), 274-291. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2009.00617.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4471/rise.2014.04

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM






RISE - Revista Internacional de Sociología de la Educación | ISSN: 2014-3575

Depósito Legal: B.34292-2012 | https://rise.hipatiapress.com | rise@hipatiapress.com