Development of an Academic Achievement Risk Assessment Scale for Undergraduates: Low, Medium and High Achievers


  • Tahira Jibeen Department of Humanities COMSATS Institute of Information and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Masha Asad Khan Foreman Christian College Lahore, Pakistan



lack of motivation, dysfunctional parental practices, parental involvement in antisocial activities, difficulty with peers, language-barrier, high academic achievers, low academic achievers


This research has developed The Academic Achievement Risk Assessment Scale [AARS], for identification of the factors which influence performance of undergraduate (448 students); studying at three universities of Lahore, Pakistan. An 18-item scale, with five distinct factors was developed which included lack of motivation, dysfunctional parental practices, parental involvement in drug abuse or antisocial activities, difficulty with peers, and language barrier. The results revealed differences among low, medium and high academic CGPA groups as all five risk factors were significantly related to the low achieving group. The study has implications for teachers, counselors, and policy makers in the field of learning


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Tahira Jibeen, Department of Humanities COMSATS Institute of Information and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

Assistant Professor

Department of Humanities

Masha Asad Khan, Foreman Christian College Lahore, Pakistan

Assistant Professor

Psychology Department


Afzal, H., Imran, A., Khan, M. A. & Kashif, H. (2010) A study of university students’

motivation and its relationship with their academic performance. International Journal

of Business and Management, 5(4), 80-88.

Ainsworth, J. (2013). Sociology of Education: An A to Z guide. Sage. Retrieved from

Akram, M., & Khan, F. J. (2007). Public provision of education and government spending in

Pakistan. Pide working papers. Pakistan Institute of development economics Islamabad.

Global Monitoring Report (2005). Education for All the Quality Imperative. UNESCO.

Ali, N., Jusoff, K., Ali, S.,Mokhtar, N., Syafena, A., & Salamats, A.(2009). The factors

influencing students’ performance at University Teknologi Mara Kedah, Malaysia.

Management Science and Engineering, 3(4), 81-90.

Anna, V.F., & Nattavudh, P. (2009). The socioeconomic gap in university dropouts.

The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 9 (1), Retrieved from

Aunola, K., Stattin, H., & Nurmi, J. E. (2000). Parenting styles and adolescents’ achievement

strategies. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 205-222.

Awan, R, N., Noureen, G., & Naz, A. (2011). A study of relationship between achievement

motivation, self concept and achievement in English and Mathematics at secondary

level. International Education Studies 4(3), 72-79. doi:10.5539/ies.v4n3p72

Baker, J. A., Bridger, R., & Evans, K. (1998). Models of underachievement among gifted

preadolescents: The role of personal, family, and school factors. Gifted Child Quarterly,

(1), 5–15.

Barro, R., & Lee, J. (2010). A ne data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950-2010.

NBER Working Paper Series (no. 15902).Retrieved from

Bartlett, M. S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various chi-square

approximations. Journal of Royal Statistical Society, 16, 296-298.

Bean, R, A., Bush, K, R., McKenry, P, C., & Wilson, S. M. (2003). The impact of parental

support, behavioral control, and psychological control on the academic achievement and

self-esteem of African American and European American adolescents. Journal of

Adolescent Research, 18 (5), 523-541.

Buote, C.A. (2002). Relations of autonomy and relatedness to school functioning and

psychological adjustment during adolescence. Dissertation Abstracts International

Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62 (1).

Buddy, T. (2007). Negative effects of parental drinking. Parental drinking affects

children's behavior. Retrieved from


Buhs, E.S., & Ladd, G.W. (2001). Peer rejection as an antecedent of young children’s school

adjustment: An examination of mediating processes. Developmental Psychology, 37,


Butler, F. A., & Castellon-Wellington, M. (2005). Students’ concurrent performance on tests of

English language proficiency and academic achievement. The validity of administering

large-scale content assessments to English language learners: An investigation from three

perspectives (CSE Rep. no. 663, pp. 47–77). Los Angeles: University of California.

Carlivati, J. (2001). Adolescent attachment, peer relationships, and school success: Predictor,

mediator, and moderator relations. Distinguished Majors Thesis (pp. 1-64).

University of Virginia.

Casanova, P., Garcia-Linares, C., Torre, M. J., & Carpio, M, V. (2005). Influence of family and

socio demographic variables on students with low academic achievement. Educational

Psychology, 25 (4), 423–435.

Chadda, R.K., & Deb, K.S. (2013). Indian family systems, collectivistic society and

psychotherapy. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 55 (2), 299–309.

Churchill,G. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs.

Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 64–73.

Cohen, J. (2001). Parental nudging underscores the lesson that it's important for children to do

well. Developmental Psychology, 32(8).

Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests.

Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.

Dallaire, D, H., Ciccone, A., & Wilson, L. C. (2010). Teachers' experiences with and

expectations of children with incarcerated parents. Journal of Applied Developmental

Psychology, 31(4), 281-290.

Dannis, J. M.,Phiney, J.S.,& C huateco, L.I.(2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and

peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority first- generation college

students. Journal of College Student Development , 46(3), 223-236.

Deberard, M, S., Spielmans,G, I., & Julka, D,L . (2004). Predictors of academic achievement

and retention among college freshmen: A longitudinal study. Retrieved from http://www

Dannis, J. M.,Phiney, J.S.,& Chuateco, L.I.(2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and

peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority first- generation college

students. Journal of College Students, 46(3), 223-236.

Diaz, A. L. (2003). Personal, family and academic factors affecting low achievement in

secondary school. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology and

Psycho pedagogy, 1(1), 43-66.

Downey, D. B., & Yuan, A. S. (2005). Sex differences in school performance during high

school: Puzzling patterns and possible explanations. The Sociological Quarterly, 46,


Eamon, M. K. (2005). Social-demographic, school, neighborhood, and parenting influences on

the academic achievement of Latino young adolescents. Journal of Youth and

Adolescence, 34, (2), 163–174.

Fass, M. E., & Tubman, J.G. (2002).The influence of parental and peer attachment on college

students’ academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 39(5), 561-573.

Fillmore, K. M. (1987). Prevalence, incidence, and chronicity of drinking patterns and problems

among men as a function of age: a longitudinal and cohort analysis. British Journal of

Addiction, 82, 77-83.

Francis, D. J., & Rivera, M. O. (2007). Principles underlying English language proficiency tests

and academic accountability for ELLs. In J. Abedi (Ed.), English language proficiency

assessment in the nation: Current status and future practice (pp. 13–31). CA:

University of California, Davis, School of Education.

Gonzales-DeHass, A.R., Willems, P.P., & Holbein, M.F.D. (2005). Examining the relationship

between parental involvement and student motivation. Educational Psychology Review,

, 199-123.

Hasnain, S., & Krantz, G. (2010). Assessing reasons for school/college dropout among

young adults and implications for awareness about STDs and HIV/AIDS: Findings from a

population-based study in Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Behavior Medicine,

, 122-130.

Hickman, G. P., Bartholomae, S., & McKenry, P. C. (2000). Influence of parenting styles on the

adjustment and academic achievement of traditional college freshmen. Journal of College

Student Development, 41, 41–54.

Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban

elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40, 237–269.

Jessica M. Solis., Shadur, J, M., Burns, A, R., & Hussong, A.M. (2013). Understanding the

diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substance. Current Drug Abuse Review,

(2), 135-147.

Kaiser H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.

Kim, K., & Rohner, R. P. (2002). Parental warmth, control and involvement in schooling:

Predicting academic achievement among Korean American adolescents. Journal of

Cross Cultural Psychology, 33, 127–140.

Kirby, D., & Sharpe, D. (2001). Stud attrition from Newfoundland and Labrador’s public

college. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 47, 353-368.

Kong, J., Powers, S., Starr, L., & Williams, N. (2012). Connecting English language learning

and academic performance: A prediction study. Vancouver: Pearson.

Kordi, A., & Baharudin,R. (2010). Parenting attitude and style and its effect on

children’s school achievements. International Journal of Psychological Studies 2 (2),


Liem, G, A., Martin, A, J. (2011). Peer relationships and adolescents’ academic and non-

academic outcomes: Same-sex and opposite-sex peer effects and the mediating role of

school engagement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 (2), 183-206.

Lisa, M, S., Marnie A. H., & Alicia H. N. (2011). Associations among peer relationships,

Academic achievement, and persistence in College. Journal of College Student

Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 12 (3), 319-337.

Lufi, D., & Cohen, A. (2003). Persistence in higher education and its relationship to other

personality variables. College Student Journal 37 (1), 50-59.

Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research,

(6), 382–385.

Ma, X., & Xu, J. (2004). Determining the causal ordering between attitude toward

Mathematics and achievement in Mathematics. American Journal of Education, 10(1),


Mandara, J. (2006). The impact of family functioning on African American males’ academic

achievement: A review and clarification of the empirical literature. Teachers College

Record, 108(2), 206-223.

Martin, A. T. (2012). Interpersonal relationship and student development: What outcomes peers,

parent, and teachers do and do not impact. International conference on interpersonal

relationships in education. Vancouver, Canada. Retrieved from

Martin, A. J. (2009). Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement:

Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational

Research, 79, 327-365.

Martin, A. J., & Dowson, M. (2009). Why interpersonal relationship are important. Review of

Educational Research, 79, 327-365.

McCoach, D.B., & Siegle, D. (2003a). Factors that differentiate underachieving

gifted students from high-achieving gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 47, 144–

McCoach, D. B., & Siegle, D. (2003b). The structure and function of academic

self-concept in gifted and general education samples. Roeper Review, 25,


McCoach, D. B., & Siegle, D. (2001). A comparison of high achievers’ and low achievers’

attitudes, perceptions, and motivation. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 5(2), 71-76.

Moss, E., & St.-Laurent, D. (2001). Attachment at school age and academic performance.

Developmental Psychology, 37, 863–874.

Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: MaGraw-Hill.

Ogden, C, E. (2011). A comparison of student performance in single sex education and

coeducational setting in urban middle schools. Retrieved from

Oliverez, P. M. &, Tierney, W. G. (2005). Show us the money: Low-income students,

families, and financial aid. Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis. Los Angeles,

CA: University of Southern California.

Parker, C. E., Louie, J., & O’Dwyer, L. (2009). New measures of English language proficiency

and their relationship to performance on large-scale content assessments (Issues &

Answers). Retrieved from

Pearson, J., & Child, J. (2007). Across cultural comparison of parental and peer attachment styles among adult children from the United States, Puerto Rico, and India. WCA Conference, Brisbane.

Peelo, M., & Wareham, T. (2002). Failing students in higher education. Philadelphia: Sreh and

Open University Press.

Porter, O. F. (1990).Undergraduate completion and persistence at four-year colleges and

universities: Detailed findings. Washington, Dc: National Institute of Independent

College and Universities.

Rudy, D., & Grusec, J.E. (2006). Authoritarian parenting in individualist and

collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and

children’s self-esteem. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 68-78.

Rumberger, R, W. & Larson, K. A. (1998). Toward explaining differences in

educational achievement among Mexican American language-minority students.

Sociology of Education, 71, 68-92.

Sarwar, M., Bashir, M., Naemullah, M., & Khan, M., & Khan, M.S. (2009). Study-orientation

of high and low academic achievers at secondary level in Pakistan. Educational

Research and Review, 4 (4), 204-207.

Shek, D. T. L, Lee, T. Y., & Chan, L. K (1998). Perceptions of parenting styles and parent–

adolescent conflict in adolescents with low academic achievement in Hong Kong. Social

Behaviour and Personality, 26, 89–98.

Sinha, S. B. P., & Singh, A. E. (1998). Effect of parents affection and competence on the home

adjustment of school students. Indian Psychological Review, 50 (2), 106-112.

Solis, J, M., Shadur,J, M., Burns, A, R., & Hussong, A, M. (2012). Understanding the diverse

needs of children whose parents abuse substances. Current Drug Abuse Review, 5(2),


Stewart, E. B. (2007). Individual and school structural effects on African American high school

students’ academic achievement. High School Journal, 91, 16–34.

Tella, A. (2007). The impact of motivation on student’s academic achievement and

and learning outcomes in Mathematics among secondary school students in Nigeria.

Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 3(2), 149-156.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological

Review, 96, 506-52

Turner, E. A., Chandler, M., & Heffer, R.W. (2009). The influence of parenting styles,

achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in college students.

Journal of College Student Development, 50 (3), 337-346.

Voss, K.E., Stem, D.E., Jr. & Fotopoulos, S. (2000). A comment on the relationship between

coefficient alpha and scale characteristics. Marketing Letters, 11(2), 177-191.

Whitlock, J. L. (2006). Youth perceptions of life at school: Contextual correlates of school

connectedness in adolescence. Applied Developmental Science, 10, 13–29.

Winters, A. (2004). Influential factors of parental substance and alcohol abuse on children’s

academic achievement. Retrieved from

Winters, A. (n. d). Influential factors of parental substance and alcohol abuse on children’s

academic achievement. Retrieved from

Zeller, R. A., & Carmines, E.G. (1980). Measurement in the social sciences:

The link between theory and data. NY: Cambridge University Pres.




How to Cite

Jibeen, T., & Khan, M. A. (2016). Development of an Academic Achievement Risk Assessment Scale for Undergraduates: Low, Medium and High Achievers. Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research, 6(1), 23–50.