Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice

Authors

  • Thomas A. Stewart Austin Peay State University
  • Gary W. Houchens Western Kentucky University

https://doi.org/10.4471/qre.2014.36

Keywords:


Abstract

This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998), who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a “poverty of practice” among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative assessment. This qualitative case study examined a series of voluntary workshops offered at one middle school designed to address this poverty of practice. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. These research questions framed the study: (1) What role did a professional learning community structure play in shaping workshop participants’ perceived effectiveness of a voluntary formative assessment initiative? (2) How did this initiative affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their knowledge of formative assessment and differentiation strategies? (3) How did it affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their abilities to teach others about formative assessment and differentiated instruction? (4) How did it affect school-wide use of classroom-level strategies?

Results indicated that teacher workshop participants experienced a growth in their capacity to use and teach others various formative assessment strategies, and even non-participating teachers reported greater use of formative assessment in their own instruction. Workshop participants and non-participating teachers perceived little growth in the area of differentiation of instruction, which contradicted some administrator perceptions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Thomas A. Stewart, Austin Peay State University

Assistant Professor, Department of Teaching and Learning

Gary W. Houchens, Western Kentucky University

Associate Professor, Department of Educational Administration, Leadership, and Research

References

Assessment Reform Group. (1999). Assessment for learning: Beyond the black box. Cambridge, UK: School of Education, Cambridge University.

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan 86(1), 9-21.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan 80(2), 130-148.

Busha, C. H., & Harter, S. P. (1980). Research methods in librarianship. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.

Campbell, M. F. (2011). The PLC at work cartoon book. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

Cauley, K., & McMillan, J. (2010). Formative assessment techniques to support student motivation and achievement. The Clearing House 83(1), 1-6.

Chappuis, J. (2009). Seven strategies of assessment for learning. Portland, OR: Educational Testing Service.

Chappuis, S., Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R. (2009). Supporting teacher learning teams. Educational Leadership, 66(5), 56-60.

Chappuis, S., Commodore, C., & Stiggins, R. (2010). Assessment balance and quality: An action guide for school leaders (3rd ed.). Portland, OR: Assessment Training Institute.

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2010, November 24). In the states. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/in-the-states#maine

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2008). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Drago-Severson, E. (2008). 4 practices serve as pillars for adult learning. JSD, 29(4), 60-63.

DuFour, R., DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (2006). Professional learning communities at work plan book. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2004). Whatever it takes: How professional learning communities respond when kids don’t learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2009). Raising the bar and closing the gap: Whatever it takes. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2010). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities at work (2nd ed.). (2010). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). (2005). On common ground: The power of professional learning communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.

Eaker, R., DuFour, R., and DuFour, R. (2002). Getting started: Reculturing schools to become professional learning communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.

Eaker, R., DuFour, R., and DuFour, R. (2007). A leader’s companion: Inspiration for professional learning communities at work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

Fuchs, L. S. & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children , 53, 199-208.

Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.

Graham, P., & Ferriter, W. F. (2009). Building a professional learning community at work: A guide to the first year. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

Holman, B. (2007). Align, assess, achieve [DVD]. United States: Westerville City Schools.

Houchens, G. W. (2008). Principal theories of practice: Mapping the cognitive structure and effects of instructional leadership (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3333813)

Jackson, D., & Street, H. (2005). What does collaborative enquiry look like? In H. Street & J. Temperly (Eds.), Improving schools through collaborative enquiry (pp. 41-70). London: Continuum.

Kentucky Association for School Councils – KASC. (2010). Understanding Senate Bill 1: Resource booklet. Danville, KY: KASC.

Knowles, M. S. (1968). Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Leadership, 16, 350-382, 386.

Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (1998). The adult learner (5th ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.

Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 59-67.

Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

The Merton Institute for Contemplative Living. (2010, November). Dialogue session 3: Why contemplative leadership? Contemplative Leadership Retreat, Bethany Springs Retreat Center, New Haven, KY.

Merton, T. (1961). New seeds of contemplation. New York, NY: New Directions Publishing.

Merton, T. (2004). The inner experience: Notes on contemplation. San Francisco, CA: Harper.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. (2001).

Palmer, P. (2000). Let your life speak: Listening for the voice of vocation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Popham, W. J. (2006). Phony formative assessments: Buyer beware! Educational Leadership, 64(3), 86-87.

Popham, W. J. (2008). Transformative assessment. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Popham, W. J. (2011a). Combating phony formative assessment – with a hyphen. Education Week 30(21), 35.

Popham, W. J. (2011b, Spring). Exposing the imbalance in “balanced assessment.” Better: Evidence-based Education, 14-15.

S. Bill 1, Kentucky Legislature 09RS (2009) (enacted). Retrieved from http://www.lrc.ky.gov/record/09rs/SB1.htm.

Sadler, D. R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18, 119-144.

Schmoker, M. (2011). Focus. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Scriven, M. (1967). The methodology of evaluation. In R. W. Tyler, R. M. Gagne, & M. Scriven (Eds.), Perspectives of curriculum evaluation (Vol. 1, pp. 39-83). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Steindl-Rast, D. (1999). A listening heart: The spirituality of sacred sensuousness (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: Crossroad.

Stiggins, R. (2004). New assessment beliefs for a new school mission. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), 22-27.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Tajfel, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, 223, 96-102.

Tajfel, H. (1972). Some developments in European social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 307-322.

Tajfel, H. (Ed.). (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.

Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Tajfel, H. (1982). The social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 1-39.

Tajfel, H., Billig, M. G., Bundy, R. P., & Flamant, C. (1971). Social categorization and intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1(2), 149-178.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). Mapping a route toward a differentiated instruction. Educational Leadership, 57(1), 12-16.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Wenger, E. (2007). Communities of practice: A brief introduction. Retrieved January 3, 2011, from http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm.

Wolcott, H. F. (2009). Writing up qualitative research (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

Downloads

Almetric

Published

2014-02-28

How to Cite

Stewart, T. A., & Houchens, G. W. (2014). Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice. Qualitative Research in Education, 3(1), 51–82. https://doi.org/10.4471/qre.2014.36

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)