Matrilineal Marriage Traditions and Hegemonic Masculinity in Marah Rusli’s Sitti Nurbaya

Authors

  • Iswadi Bahardur Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia
  • Andayani Andayani Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia
  • Sarwiji Suwandi Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia
  • Nugraheni Eko Wardani Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.17583/mcs.7946

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Abstract

This article offers an intensive analysis and discussion regarding the practice of hegemonic masculinity in the matrilineal marriage tradition belonging to the Minangkabau ethnic group in the western part of Indonesia's Sumatera archipelago. The rules of Minangkabau matrilineal customs that still place men as policymakers for women are a contributing factor to the practice of hegemonic masculinity. The data source used to examine the problem is an Indonesian novel set in Minangkabau society and culture entitled Sitti Nurbaya by Marah Rusli. Text data obtained from the novel Sitti Nurbaya were analyzed using content analysis techniques. After analyzing the stages of data reduction, data display, and data verification, it was found that two matrilocal marriage traditions in Minangkabau society show the practice of hegemonic masculinity, namely a) kawin bajapuik tradition; and b) the tradition of polygamy. The hegemonic masculinity in both traditions is characterized by the superiority of male power in regulating the conditions of marriage and the emphasis on female obedience as subordinate objects. This study is considered to have greatly contributed to the initial study of masculine literature in the Minangkabau matrilineal society, the study of the revitalization of its gender mainstreaming, as well as efforts to find out the description of the social reality of Minangkabau society in the early 20th century.

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Author Biographies

Iswadi Bahardur, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Student of Doctoral Program in Indonesian Language Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,

Sebelas Maret University

Andayani Andayani, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Professor at  Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,

Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Sarwiji Suwandi, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Professor at  Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,

Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Nugraheni Eko Wardani, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Lecturer at Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,

Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

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Google Scholar Crossref

Gunwant, S., & Gaur, R. (2016). Towards a Taxonomy of Masculinities : Mapping Hegemonic and Alternative Masculine Practices in Shashi Deshpande ’ s The Dark Holds No Terror and That Long Silence. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, VIII(3), 194–202. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.21659/rupkatha.v8n3.20

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Google Scholar Crossref

Haq, I. U., & Rashid, U. (2018). Masculinities : Tracing the Trajectories of Gender Performance in War Poetry. Masculinities and Social Change Vol., 7, 110–123. https://doi.org/10.17583/MCS.2018.3122

Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

Howson, R., & Yecies, B. (2016). The Role of Hegemonic Masculinity and Hollywood in the New Korea. Masculinities and Social Change, 5(1), 52–69. https://doi.org/10.17583/MCS.2016.1047

Google Scholar Crossref

Ives, P. (2004). Language and Hegemony in Gramsci. In Language and Hegemony in Gramsci. Fernwood Publishing.

Google Scholar Crossref

J. W. Messerschmidt. (2018). Hegemonic Masculinity: Formulation, Reformulation, and Amplifications. Rowman & Littlefield,.

Google Scholar Crossref

K. Krippendorff. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Google Scholar Crossref

Kimmel, M., Hearn, J., & Connel, R. W. (2005). Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. In M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, & R. W. Connell (Eds.), Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling (Issue 9). Sage Publication.

Google Scholar Crossref

Lestarini, R., Pranoto, D. M., & Tirtawening, T. (2021). The Fault in Traditional and Formal Approaches to Domestic Violence : A Call for Reform in West Sumatra. Journal of International Women ’ s Studies, 22(1), 152–165. https://doi.org/https://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol22/iss1/9

Google Scholar Crossref

Łobodziec, A. (2015). Black Masculinity and Plantation Patriarchy in Margaret Walker’s Jubilee. Masculinities and Social Change, 4(2), 1230143. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/msc.2015.1413 PLEASE

Google Scholar Crossref

Mandibaye, S. (2021). Marriage as a Private Hell in Daphne Du Maurier’s Novels: Rebecca and My Cousin Rachel. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 09(01), 510–522. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91036

Google Scholar Crossref

Mattison, M., Quinlan, R. J., Hare, D., & Rj, Q. (2019). The expendable male hypothesis. Royal Society Publishing, 1–13. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0080

Google Scholar Crossref

Messerschmidt, J. W. (2019). Hidden in plain sight: On the omnipresence of hegemonic masculinities. Masculinities: A Journal of Culture and Society, 12, 14–29. https://doi.org/http://www.masculinitiesjournal.org/

Google Scholar Crossref

Miles, M. B., & Hubermen, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis; An Expanded Sourcebook. In Sage Publication (Second Edi). Sage Publications.

Google Scholar Crossref

Navis, A. A. (2015). Alam Takambang Jadi Guru, Adat dan Kebudayaan Minangkabau. Grafika Pers.

Google Scholar Crossref

Ramanta, H., & Samsuri. (2020). The Values of Local Wisdom of Minangkabau Culture in a Baralek Gadang Traditional Wedding. Humaniora, 11(3), 193–201. https://doi.org/10.21512/humaniora.v11i3.6625

Google Scholar Crossref

Reddy, R., Sharma, A. K., & Jha, M. (2019). Hegemonic masculinity or masculine domination: Toward a comprehensive social theory of gender. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 39(3–4), 296–310. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-08-2018-0133

Google Scholar Crossref

Rusli, M. (2011). Sitti Nurbaya. PT. Balai Pustaka.

Google Scholar Crossref

Saldana, J. (2011). Fundamentals of Qualitative Research: Understanding Qualitative Research. Oxford University Press,.

Google Scholar Crossref

Schneider, D. M., Gough, K., & Gough, K. (1961). Matrilineal Kinship (D. M. Schneider & K. Gough (eds.); First Edit). University of California Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Şenel, N. (2017). From Hegemonic Masculinity to Masculinity Crisis: The Exploration of the Failure of Idealized Masculinity on the White Screen. Masculinities: A Journal of Identity and Culture, 8, 19–36. https://doi.org/http://masculinitiesjournal.org/en-us/dergiler/issue-8--august/34-

Google Scholar Crossref

Sile, A. C., Suwena, I. W., & Arjani, N. L. (2020). Relasi Gender dalam Sistem Kekerabatan Matrilineal. Humanis, 24(2), 177. https://doi.org/10.24843/jh.2020.v24.i02.p09

Google Scholar Crossref

Singh, J. (2020). Exploring Hegemonic Masculinity in Amandeep Sandhu’s Roll of Honour. Shanlax International Journal of English, 8(2), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.34293/english.v8i2.1653

Google Scholar Crossref

Syahril, S. (2018). Women and Marriage: an Analysis Comparativ Literature on the Novel Indonesia, England, and America. Ar Raniry : International Journal of Islamic Studies, 4(2), 291. https://doi.org/10.20859/jar.v4i2.141

Google Scholar Crossref

Tingting, Z. (2017). The Construction of a New Hegemonic Masculinity in Youth. Studies in Literature and Language, 15(1), 39–42. https://doi.org/10.3968/9726

Google Scholar Crossref

Walliman, N. (2010). Research Methods: The Basics. Routledge.

Google Scholar Crossref

Yang, Y. (2020). What’s Hegemonic about Hegemonic Masculinity? Legitimation and Beyond. Sociological Theory, 38(4), 318–333. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735275120960792

Google Scholar Crossref

Alfi, M. (2019). The Male Culture Tradition Babali Among Pariaman Emigrants (Reinterpretation Study on Pariaman Emigrants in Bandung City). ISoLEC International Seminar on Language, Education, and Culture, 3(10), 487. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i10.3937

Google Scholar Crossref

Anwar, A. (2012). Teori Sosial Sastra. Penerbit Ombak.

Google Scholar Crossref

Azwar, W. (2018). Women in the “Kerangkeng” of Tradition: the Study on the Status of Women in Minangkabau. Ijtimaiyya: Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam, 10(2), 369–385. https://doi.org/10.24042/ijpmi.v10i2.2368

Google Scholar Crossref

Baal, J. Van. (1987). Sejarah Dan Pertumbuhan Teori Antropologi Budaya (Hingga Dekade 1970). Gramedia.

Google Scholar Crossref

Beynon, J. (2002). Masculinities And Culture. Open University Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Bharadwaj, C. (2017). Gender, matriliny, and politics: Negotiating the women’s agency and social structure in the Khasi matrilineal society. International Journal of Applied Research, 3(2), 348–354. https://doi.org/https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2927604

Google Scholar Crossref

Bustam, B. M. R. (2016). The Society Of Minangkabau In Tulis Sutan sati’s Sengsara Membawa Nikmat: Between Local Traditions And Islamic Teaching. Analisa, Journal of Social Science and Religion, 01(01), 59–74. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.18784/analisa.v1i1.261

Google Scholar Crossref

Connel, R. (2012). Masculinity Research and Global Change. Masculinity and Social Change Journal, 1(1), 4–18. https://doi.org/10.4471/MCS.2012.01

Google Scholar Crossref

Connel, R. W. (1987). Gender And Power, Society, The Person and Sexual Politics. In American Behavioral Scientist. Polity Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Connel, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity rethinking the concept. Gender and Society, 19(6), 829–859. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243205278639

Google Scholar Crossref

Connell, R. (2009). Gender In World Perspective (SEcond Edi). Polity Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinities (Second Edi). University of California Press Berkeley.

Google Scholar Crossref

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (Fourth Edi). Sage Publications.

Google Scholar Crossref

Dharani, B., Vergo, O., & April, K. (2020). An intersectional approach to hegemonic masculinity and internal hegemony: a thematic analysis in South African men. Journal of Gender Studies, 00(00), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2020.1852918

Google Scholar Crossref

Diradjo, I. D. S. (2018). Tambo Alam Minangkabau. Kristal Multimedia.

Google Scholar Crossref

Drisko, J. W., & Maschi, T. (2016). Content Analysis. Oxford University Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Fahmi, F., Yaswirman, & Mardenis. (2020). Implementation of Low Heritage Health Association According to the Law of Minangkabau In Nagari Balingka, Agam Regency. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 7(1), 368–378. https://doi.org/.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v7i1.1357

Google Scholar Crossref

Femia, J. V. (1981). Gramsci’s Political Thought; Hegemony, Consciousness, and the Revolutionary Process. Clarendon Press Oxford.

Google Scholar Crossref

Ferry, P. (2013). Writing Men: Recognising the sociological value of counter? hegemonic masculinities in American fiction. Masculinities and Social Change, 2(2), 146–166. https://doi.org/10.4471/MCS.2013.27

Google Scholar Crossref

Gunwant, S., & Gaur, R. (2016). Towards a Taxonomy of Masculinities : Mapping Hegemonic and Alternative Masculine Practices in Shashi Deshpande ’ s The Dark Holds No Terror and That Long Silence. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, VIII(3), 194–202. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.21659/rupkatha.v8n3.20

Google Scholar Crossref

Handrianto, C. (2017). The Roles of Matrilineal System Towards Integrating Religious and Cultural Values in Minangkabau Community Abstract This paper looks at one of the unique cultures of Indonesia , the Minangkabau , in West Sumatera Province . Minangkabau is known as one of . Jurnal ILmiah Peuraden, The International of Social Sciences, 5(3), 273–386.

Google Scholar Crossref

Haq, I. U., & Rashid, U. (2018). Masculinities : Tracing the Trajectories of Gender Performance in War Poetry. Masculinities and Social Change Vol., 7, 110–123. https://doi.org/10.17583/MCS.2018.3122

Google Scholar Crossref

Herrmann, A. (2017). Hegemony. In The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication . (Issue October, pp. 1–6). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Google Scholar Crossref

Howson, R. (2006). Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity. In Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Routledge.

Google Scholar Crossref

Howson, R., & Yecies, B. (2016). The Role of Hegemonic Masculinity and Hollywood in the New Korea. Masculinities and Social Change, 5(1), 52–69. https://doi.org/10.17583/MCS.2016.1047

Google Scholar Crossref

Ives, P. (2004). Language and Hegemony in Gramsci. In Language and Hegemony in Gramsci. Fernwood Publishing.

Google Scholar Crossref

J. W. Messerschmidt. (2018). Hegemonic Masculinity: Formulation, Reformulation, and Amplifications. Rowman & Littlefield,.

Google Scholar Crossref

K. Krippendorff. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Google Scholar Crossref

Kimmel, M., Hearn, J., & Connel, R. W. (2005). Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. In M. S. Kimmel, J. Hearn, & R. W. Connell (Eds.), Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling (Issue 9). Sage Publication.

Google Scholar Crossref

Lestarini, R., Pranoto, D. M., & Tirtawening, T. (2021). The Fault in Traditional and Formal Approaches to Domestic Violence : A Call for Reform in West Sumatra. Journal of International Women ’ s Studies, 22(1), 152–165. https://doi.org/https://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol22/iss1/9

Google Scholar Crossref

Łobodziec, A. (2015). Black Masculinity and Plantation Patriarchy in Margaret Walker’s Jubilee. Masculinities and Social Change, 4(2), 1230143. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/msc.2015.1413 PLEASE

Google Scholar Crossref

Mandibaye, S. (2021). Marriage as a Private Hell in Daphne Du Maurier’s Novels: Rebecca and My Cousin Rachel. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 09(01), 510–522. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91036

Google Scholar Crossref

Mattison, M., Quinlan, R. J., Hare, D., & Rj, Q. (2019). The expendable male hypothesis. Royal Society Publishing, 1–13. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0080

Google Scholar Crossref

Messerschmidt, J. W. (2019). Hidden in plain sight: On the omnipresence of hegemonic masculinities. Masculinities: A Journal of Culture and Society, 12, 14–29. https://doi.org/http://www.masculinitiesjournal.org/

Google Scholar Crossref

Miles, M. B., & Hubermen, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis; An Expanded Sourcebook. In Sage Publication (Second Edi). Sage Publications.

Google Scholar Crossref

Navis, A. A. (2015). Alam Takambang Jadi Guru, Adat dan Kebudayaan Minangkabau. Grafika Pers.

Google Scholar Crossref

Ramanta, H., & Samsuri. (2020). The Values of Local Wisdom of Minangkabau Culture in a Baralek Gadang Traditional Wedding. Humaniora, 11(3), 193–201. https://doi.org/10.21512/humaniora.v11i3.6625

Google Scholar Crossref

Reddy, R., Sharma, A. K., & Jha, M. (2019). Hegemonic masculinity or masculine domination: Toward a comprehensive social theory of gender. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 39(3–4), 296–310. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-08-2018-0133

Google Scholar Crossref

Rusli, M. (2011). Sitti Nurbaya. PT. Balai Pustaka.

Google Scholar Crossref

Saldana, J. (2011). Fundamentals of Qualitative Research: Understanding Qualitative Research. Oxford University Press,.

Google Scholar Crossref

Schneider, D. M., Gough, K., & Gough, K. (1961). Matrilineal Kinship (D. M. Schneider & K. Gough (eds.); First Edit). University of California Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Şenel, N. (2017). From Hegemonic Masculinity to Masculinity Crisis: The Exploration of the Failure of Idealized Masculinity on the White Screen. Masculinities: A Journal of Identity and Culture, 8, 19–36. https://doi.org/http://masculinitiesjournal.org/en-us/dergiler/issue-8--august/34-

Google Scholar Crossref

Sile, A. C., Suwena, I. W., & Arjani, N. L. (2020). Relasi Gender dalam Sistem Kekerabatan Matrilineal. Humanis, 24(2), 177. https://doi.org/10.24843/jh.2020.v24.i02.p09

Google Scholar Crossref

Singh, J. (2020). Exploring Hegemonic Masculinity in Amandeep Sandhu’s Roll of Honour. Shanlax International Journal of English, 8(2), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.34293/english.v8i2.1653

Google Scholar Crossref

Syahril, S. (2018). Women and Marriage: an Analysis Comparativ Literature on the Novel Indonesia, England, and America. Ar Raniry : International Journal of Islamic Studies, 4(2), 291. https://doi.org/10.20859/jar.v4i2.141

Google Scholar Crossref

Tingting, Z. (2017). The Construction of a New Hegemonic Masculinity in Youth. Studies in Literature and Language, 15(1), 39–42. https://doi.org/10.3968/9726

Google Scholar Crossref

Walliman, N. (2010). Research Methods: The Basics. Routledge.

Google Scholar Crossref

Yang, Y. (2020). What’s Hegemonic about Hegemonic Masculinity? Legitimation and Beyond. Sociological Theory, 38(4), 318–333. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735275120960792

Google Scholar Crossref

Yeniasır, M., & Gökbulut, B. (2020). Masculinity perception and socio-cultural functions of men in Turkish culture from ancient epics to modern novels. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 30(1), 3–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2019.1675565

Google Scholar Crossref

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2022-02-21

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Bahardur, I., Andayani, A., Suwandi, S., & Wardani, N. E. (2022). Matrilineal Marriage Traditions and Hegemonic Masculinity in Marah Rusli’s Sitti Nurbaya. Masculinities &Amp; Social Change, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.17583/mcs.7946

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