“Einstein Worked his Socks off”. Conceptions of Intelligence in University Teaching Staff

Jose Antonio Matias-Garcia, Rosario Cubero-Perez

Abstract


There is vast amount of research that links implicit theories of intelligence with several learning-relevant variables in both learners and teachers alike. However, there is a gap in the literature, as there is almost no research done with university teachers.   Furthermore, most scientific research polarizes incremental and fixed views of intelligence in spite of data that show there is heterogeneity in participants’ views.  This study explores the implicit theories of intelligence of university teachers (N = 20), employing a category system for the analysis of semi-structured interviews designed to capture heterogeneity. Participants were asked to express their opinion about several small vignettes regarding intelligence. The number of participants’ explanations related to intelligence and the complexity in their argumentation was considered.  Results show differences in both measures among different fields of knowledge and gender, but not in relation to years of teaching experience. Future implications for research, intervention, and implicit theories measurement are discussed.

Keywords


university teachers, higher education, implicit theories of intelligence, fields of knowledge, teaching experience, gender

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alesi, M., Rappo, G., & Pepi, A. (2016). Investigating the Improvement of Decoding Abilities and Working Memory in Children with Incremental or Entity Personal Conceptions of Intelligence: Two Case Reports. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1939. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01939

Agudelo, A.I. (2015). Conceptions of Intelligence within the Educational Environment: Teachers' Implicit Theories. Unpublished document. Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology. University of Seville.

Author (2011)

Author (2015)

Author (2016)

Author (2008)

Author (In press)

Bahník, Š., & Vranka, M. A. (2017). Growth mindset is not associated with scholastic aptitude in a large sample of university applicants. Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 139–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PAID.2017.05.046

Burnette, J. L., O'Boyle, E. H., VanEpps, E. M., Pollack, J. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2013). Mind-sets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological bulletin, 139(3), 655-701.

Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040-1048. http://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040

Dweck, C. (2000). Self-theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Espinoza, P., Fontes, A. B. A. da L., & Arms-Chavez, C. J. (2014). Attributional gender bias: teachers’ ability and effort explanations for students’ math performance. Social Psychology of Education, 17(1), 105-126. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-013-9226-6

Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher Efficacy: A Construct Validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569-82.

Greenwood, G. E., Olejnik, S. F., & Parkay, F. W. (1990). Relationships between Four Teacher Efficacy Belief Patterns and Selected Teacher Characteristics. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 23(2), 102-106.

Gunderson, E. A., Gripshover, S. J., Romero, C., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (2013). Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children’s Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later. Child Development, 84(5), 1526-1541. http://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12064

Helms-Lorenz, M., & Maulana, R. (2016). Influencing the psychological well-being of beginning teachers across three years of teaching: self-efficacy, stress causes, job tension and job discontent. Educational Psychology, 36(3), 569-594. http://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2015.1008403

Hong, Y. Y., Chiu, C. Y., Dweck, C. S., Lin, D. M. S., & Wan, W. (1999). Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(3), 588-599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.3.588

Jonsson, A.C., & Beach, D. (2010). Reproduction of Social Class in Teacher Education: The Influence of Scientific Theories on Future Teachers’ Implicit Beliefs. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 8(2), 1-46.

Jonsson, A.C., Beach, D., Korp, H., & Erlandson, P. (2012). Teachers’ implicit theories of intelligence: influences from different disciplines and scientific theories. European Journal of Teacher Education, 35(4), 387-400. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2012.662636

Katz, S., & Stupel, M. (2016). Enhancing elementary-school mathematics teachers’ efficacy beliefs: a qualitative action research. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 47(3), 421-439. http://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2015.1080314

Kriegbaum, K., Jansen, M., & Spinath, B. (2015). Motivation: A predictor of PISA’s mathematical competence beyond intelligence and prior test achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 43, 140-148. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.08.026

Lawson, R. J. (2011). Concepts of ability and their effect on approaches to learning and motivational orientation. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(1), 30-46.

Leggett, E. (1985). Children's entity and incremental theories of intelligence: Relationships to achievement behavior. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston.

Leith, S. A., Ward, C. L. P., Giacomin, M., Landau, E. S., Ehrlinger, J., & Wilson, A. E. (2014). Changing Theories of Change: Strategic Shifting in Implicit Theory Endorsement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(4), 597-620. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0037699

Licht, B. G., & Dweck, C. S. (1984). Determinants of academic achievement: The interaction of children’s achievement orientations with skill area. Developmental Psychology, 20(4), 628-636. http://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.20.4.628

Lynott, D. J., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1994). Teachers' implicit theories of intelligence and their educational goals. The Journal of Research and Development in Education, 27(4), 253-264.

Mascret, N., Roussel, P., & Cury, F. (2015). Using implicit measures to highlight science teachers’ implicit theories of intelligence. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 30(3), 269-280. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-015-0249-6

Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. (2015). Datos y Cifras del Sistema Universitario Español. Curso 2014-2015. Madrid: Subdirección General de Documentación y Publicaciones. Retrieved on from: http://www.mecd.gob.es/educacion-mecd/areas-educacion/universidades/estadisticas-informes/datos-cifras.html

Moorman, E. A., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2010). Ability mindsets influence the quality of mothers’ involvement in children’s learning: an experimental investigation. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1354-1362. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0020376

Murrone, J., & Gynther, M. (1991). Teachers Implicit Theories of Childrens Intelligence. Psychological Reports, 69(3), 1195-1201.

Park, D., Gunderson, E. A., Tsukayama, E., Levine, S. C., & Beilock, S. L. (2016). Young Children’s Motivational Frameworks and Math Achievement: Relation to Teacher-Reported Instructional Practices, but Not Teacher Theory of Intelligence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 300-313. http://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000064

Patterson, M. M., Kravchenko, N., Chen-Bouck, L., & Kelley, J. A. (2016). General and domain-specific beliefs about intelligence, ability, and effort among preservice and practicing teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 180-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.06.004

Rattan, A., Good, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). ‘It’s ok — Not everyone can be good at math’: Instructors with an entity theory comfort (and demotivate) students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(3), 731-737. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.012

Renaud-Dube, A., Guay, F., Talbot, D., Taylor, G., & Koestner, R. (2015). The relations between implicit intelligence beliefs, autonomous academic motivation, and school persistence intentions: a mediation model. Social Psychology of Education, 18(2), 255-272. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-014-9288-0

Robins, R. W., & Pals, J. L. (2002). Implicit Self-Theories in the Academic Domain: Implications for Goal Orientation, Attributions, Affect, and Self-Esteem Change. Self and Identity, 1(4), 313-336. http://doi.org/10.1080/15298860290106805

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0092976

Sarrasin, J. B., Nenciovici, L., Foisy, L.-M. B., Allaire-Duquette, G., Riopel, M., & Masson, S. (2018). Effects of teaching the concept of neuroplasticity to induce a growth mindset on motivation, achievement, and brain activity: A meta-analysis. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 12, 22–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TINE.2018.07.003

Senler, B. (2016). Pre-service science teachers’ self-efficacy: The role of attitude, anxiety and locus of control. Australian Journal of Education, 60(1), 26-41. http://doi.org/10.1177/0004944116629807

Sternberg, R. J. & Davidson, J. E. (1986). Conceptions of giftedness: A map of the terrain. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Strosher, H. L. W. (2003). Prospective and practicing teachers' beliefs: a study of implicit theories of intelligence and teacher efficacy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Victoria.

Tiedemann, J. (2000). Gender-related beliefs of teachers in elementary school mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 41(2), 191-207. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003953801526

Villamizar, G., & Donoso, R. (2014). Teorías implícitas sobre inteligencia de profesores universitarios. Educere, 18(59), 103-110.

Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets That Promote Resilience: When Students Believe That Personal Characteristics Can Be Developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302–314. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2012.722805




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2020.4553

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



International Journal of Educational Psychology - IJEP | ISSN: 2014-3591

Legal Deposit: B.34286-2012 | https://ijep.hipatiapress.com | ijep@hipatiapress.com