Psychological Impact of Work-Integrated Learning Programmes in Malaysia: The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem on Relation between Self-Efficacy and Self-Confidence




work-integrated learning, psychological attributes, psychological empowerment, higher education, Malaysia


This study further extends a theoretical model of psychological empowerment by investigating the relationships between self-efficacy, self-confidence and self-esteem. A sample of by 383 of Malaysian undergraduates participating in Work Integrated Learning (WIL)programmes across five public universities is used to test the model employing partial-least squares based structural equation modelling .The results have demonstrated  that self-efficacy and self-esteem have a positive and significant relationship with self-confidence. This study also confirms the moderating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between self-efficacy and self-confidence.  Furthermore, the findings of this study provide insight of the influence of WIL programmes on the undergraduates’ psychological attributes. These findings have implications for WIL stakeholders, which are highlighted in the paper.

Author Biographies

Amar Hisham Jaaffar, Universiti Tenaga Nasional

Department of Management and Human Resource,

College of Business Management and Accounting,

Muadzam Shah, 26700

Pahang, Malaysia.

Hazril Izwar Ibrahim, Universiti Sains Malaysia

School of Management,


Penang, Malaysia

Jegatheesan Rajadurai, Universiti Tenaga Nasional,

Department of Marketing and Entrepreneur Development,

College of Business Management and Accounting,

Muadzam Shah, 26700

Pahang, Malaysia

M. Sadiq Sohail, King Fahd University of Petroleum and MInerals


Deapartment of Management and Marketing



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How to Cite

Jaaffar, A. H., Ibrahim, H. I., Rajadurai, J., & Sohail, M. S. (2019). Psychological Impact of Work-Integrated Learning Programmes in Malaysia: The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem on Relation between Self-Efficacy and Self-Confidence. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 8(2), 188–213.