Predicting Procrastination: The Role of Academic Achievement, Self-efficacy and Perfectionism

Ana Kurtovic, Gabrijela Vrdoljak, Anita Idzanovic


The aim of this study was to examine the relations of academic achievement, self-efficacy, and perfectionism with procrastination in University students, and to examine whether procrastination can be predicted by academic achievement, self-efficacy, and perfectionism dimensions. 227 University students from different faculties completed Tuckmans' procrastination scale, Almost Perfect Scale – Revised (APS-R; Slaney Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001) and General self-Efficacy Scale (GSE; Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995), as well as data about academic achievement at the end of last academic year. Results have shown negative correlations of academic achievement, self-efficacy and adaptive perfectionism with procrastination, and a positive correlation between maladaptive perfectionism and procrastination. Results have also shown that self-efficacy is positively correlated with adaptive perfectionism and negatively with maladaptive perfectionism. Maladaptive perfectionism was a positive predictor of procrastination, while academic achievement, self-efficacy and adaptive perfectionism were all negative predictors. Finally, we used Hayes bootstrapping method to examine possible mediations. The results have shown that self-efficacy, by its self, is not a significant mediator, while paths containing self-efficacy and adaptive or maladaptive perfectionism mediate the relation between academic achievement and procrastination. Furthermore, both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relation between self-efficacy and procrastination.


procrastination; academic achievement; self-efficacy; prefectionism; University students

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