Grade Level Differences in the Cognitive, Behavioral, and Physiological Components of Test Anxiety

Utkun Aydın

Abstract


The capacity to cope with test anxiety that contain high concentrations of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological manifestations, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as evaluative settings. The developing ability to deal with test anxiety relative to the increasingly strict evaluative practices students encounter points that students’ test anxiety may decline as they move through school years. This study examined three test anxiety components (thoughts, off-task behaviors, and autonomic reactions) with students from 3 public schools in İstanbul, Turkey. Using a diverse sample of elementary (Grade 4; N = 414) and middle (Grade 6; N = 201) school students, grade level differences in these components were investigated. Applying a multivariate approach, significant differences were found in the overall test anxiety, favoring fourth grade students. The results also revealed Grade 4 advantage for off-task behaviors and autonomic reactions, = .014 and = .011, but no grade level differences in the thoughts. Educational implications of the findings are discussed.


Keywords


test anxiety; thoughts; off-task behaviors; autonomic reactions; grade level; individual differences

Full Text:

PDF

References


AERA, APA, & NCME. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington DC: Author.

Authors. (In press).

Benson, J. (1998). Developing a strong program of construct validation: A test anxiety example. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 17(1), 10-22.

Authors. (2005).

Baş, G. (2016). Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 5(3), 308-335.

Bodas, J., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Test anxiety: A cross-cultural perspective. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8(1), 65-88.

Bodas, J., Ollendick, T. H., & Sovani, A. V. (2008). Test anxiety in Indian children: A cross-cultural perspective. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 21(4), 387-404.

Casbarro, J. (2005). Test anxiety and what you can do about it: A practical guide for teachers, parents, and kids. Port Chester, NY: Dude.

Chapell, M. S., Blanding, Z. B., Silverstein, M. E., Takahashi, M., Newman, B., Gubi, A. et al. (2005). Test anxiety and academic performance in undergraduate and graduate students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 268-274.

Cleary, T. J., & Chen, P. P. (2009). Self-regulation, motivation, and math achievement in middle school: Variations across grade level and math context. Journal of School Psychology, 47(5), 291-314.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ergene, T. (2003). Effective interventions on test anxiety reduction. School Psychology International, 24(3), 313–328.

Everson, H. T., Millsap, R. E., & Rodriguez, C. M. (1991). Isolating gender differences in test anxiety: A confirmatory factor analysis of the Test Anxiety Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(1), 243-251.

Harter, S. (1983). The development of the self-system. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58(1), 47–77.

Hill, K. (1972). Anxiety in the evaluative context. In W. W. Hartup (Ed.), The young child (Vol. 2, pp. 225-263). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Huntley, C. D., Young, B., Jha, V., & Fisher, P. L. (2016). The efficacy of interventions for test anxiety in university students: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Educational Research, 77, 92-98.

Liebert, R. M., & Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional dimensions of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20(3), 975–978.

Little, R. J. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 1198-1202.

Lowe, P. A. (2014). The Test Anxiety Measure for Adolescents (TAMA): Examination of the reliability and validity of the scores of a new multidimensional measure of test anxiety for middle and high school students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32(5), 404 – 416.

Lowe, P. A., Grumbein, M. J., & Raad, J. M. (2011). Examination of the psychometric properties of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) scores. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(6), 503-514.

Lowe, P. A., & Lee, S.W. (2008). Factor structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA): Scores across gender among students in elementary and secondary school settings. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 26(3), 231 – 246.

Lowe, P. A., Lee, S. W., Witteborg, K. M., Prichard, K. W., Luhr, M. E., Cullinan, C. M. et al. (2008). The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA): Examination of the properties of a new multidimensional measure of test anxiety among elementary and secondary school students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 26(3), 215-230.

Nyroos, M., Korhonen, J., Peng, A., Linnanmäki, K., Svens-Liavåg, C., Bagger, A., & Sjöberg, G. (2015). Cultural and gender differences in experiences and expression of test anxiety among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 pupils. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 3(1), 37-48.

Authors. (2013).

Putwain, D. W. (2007). Test anxiety in UK schoolchildren: Prevalence and demographic patterns. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3), 579-593.

Putwain, D. W., & Best, N. (2011). Fear appeals in the primary classroom: Effects on test anxiety and test grade. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 580-584.

Putwain, D. W., & Daniels, R. A. (2010). Is the relationship between competence beliefs and test anxiety influenced by goal orientation? Learning and Individual Differences, 20(1), 8-13.

Sarason, S. B. (1959). What research says about test anxiety in elementary school children. NEA Journal, 48, 26–27.

Schwarzer, R., & Bowler, R. (1982). Text anxiety research in Western Germany: A review. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 8(1), 39-52.

Segool, N. K., Carlson, J. S., Goforth, A. N., Von Der Embse, N., & Barterian, J. A. (2013). Heightened test anxiety among young children: elementary school students’ anxious responses to high‐stakes testing. Psychology in the Schools, 50(5), 489-499.

Spielberger, C. D., & P.R. Vagg (1995). Test anxiety theory, assessment, and treatment. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Inc (2010). PASW statistics 18. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

Sub, A., & Prabha, C. (2003). Academic performance in relation to perfectionism, test procrastination, and test anxiety of high school children. Psychological Studies, 48(3), 77-81.

Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson Education.

Villavicencio, F. T., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2016). Beyond math anxiety: Positive emotions predict mathematics achievement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(3), 415-422.

von der Embse, N., & Hasson, R. (2012). Test anxiety and high-stakes test performance between school settings: implications for educators. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 56(3), 180-187.

von der Embse, N., Barterian, J., & Segool, N. (2013). Test anxiety interventions for children and adolescents: A systematic review of treatment studies from 2000–2010. Psychology in the Schools, 50(1), 57-71.

Weems, C. F., Scott, B. G., Taylor, L. K., Cannon, M. F., Romano, D. M., Perry, A. M., & Triplett, V. (2010). Test anxiety prevention and intervention programs in schools: Program development and rationale. School Mental Health, 2(2), 62-71.

Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1989). Test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. Educational Psychologist, 24(2), 159-183.

Wren, D. G. & Benson, J. (2004). Measuring test anxiety in children: Scale development and internal construct validation. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 17(3), 227-240.

Authors. (2003).

Authors. (2006).

Yeung, A. S. (2011). Student self-concept and effort: Gender and grade differences. Educational Psychology, 31(6), 749-772.

Zeidner, M. (1990). Does test anxiety bias scholastic aptitude test performance by gender and sociocultural group? Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(1-2), 145-160.

Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2019.2729

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



International Journal of Educational Psychology - IJEP | ISSN: 2014-3591

Legal Deposit: B.34286-2012 | https://ijep.hipatiapress.com | ijep@hipatiapress.com