Children’s Reflections on Two Cultural Ways of Working Together: “Talking with Hands and Eyes” or Requiring Words

Amy L. Roberts, Barbara Rogoff

Abstract


Forty-four pairs of Mexican-heritage and European-heritage US children were asked to characterize differences between two contrasting cultural patterns of working together in video clips that showed a) Mexican Indigenous-heritage children working together by collaborating, helping, observing others, and using nonverbal as well as verbal communication, and b) middle-class European-American children working alone and using predominantly verbal communication.

Through experience in two cultural settings, bilingual Mexican-heritage US children may become familiar with these contrasting cultural patterns that have been identified in research. Mexican-heritage US children characterized the clips in ways that corresponded with researchers’ descriptions more often than did European-heritage children, when discussing working together and helping but not when discussing communication.

The children from the two backgrounds differed in their treatment of talk. In addition to talking more overall, half of the European-heritage US children considered talk a requirement for working together or helping, excluding nonverbal communication as a way of working together or helping. In contrast, the Mexican-heritage US children included nonverbal communication as a means of working together and helping, and some seemed to include nonverbal communication as a form of talking.


Keywords


communication, collaboration, nonverbal, culture, Intent Community Participation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Apfelbaum, E. (1978). Relations of domination and movements for liberation. In W. G. Austin, S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. (pp. 188-204). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Green, D.W., & Gollan, T.H. (2009). Bilingual minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 89-129.

Buchanan-Barrow, E. (2005). Children's understanding of the school. In Barrett, M., & Buchanan-Barrow, E. (Eds.), Children's understanding of society. (pp. 349-369). NY: Psychology Press.

Brown, B. A. (2006). “It isn't no slang that can be said about this stuff”: Language, identity, and appropriating science discourse. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(1), 96-126.

Candela, A. (2005). Students’ participation as co-authoring of school institutional practices. Culture & Psychology, 11(3), 321–337.

Cazden, C. & John, V. (1971). Learning in American Indian children. In M. L. Wax, S. Diamond, F. O. Gearing (Eds.), Anthropological perspectives on education (pp. 252-272). NY: Basic.

Chavajay, P., & Rogoff, B. (2002). Schooling and traditional collaborative social organization of problem solving by Mayan mothers and children. Developmental Psychology, 38 (1), 55-66.

Chamoux, M. N. (1992). Aprendiendo de otro modo. In M.-N. Chamoux (Ed.), Trabajo, técnicas y aprendizaje en el México indígena (pp. 73-93). Mexico City: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Ediciones de la Casa Chata.

Correa-Chávez, M., Rogoff, B., & Mejía Arauz, R. (2005). Cultural patterns in attending to two events at once. Child Development, 76, 664-678.

Correa-Chávez, M., Roberts, A. L. D. & Martínez Pérez, M. (2011). Cultural patterns in children’s learning through keen observation and participation in their communities. In: J. Benson (Ed.). Advances in Child Behavior and Development, 40, (pp. 209-241).

deHaan, M. (1999). Learning as cultural practice: How children learn in a Mexican Mazahua community. Amsterdam: Thela Thesis.

deHaan, M. (2001). Intersubjectivity in models of learning and teaching. In S. Chaiklin (Ed.), The theory and practice of cultural-historical psychology. (pp. 174-199). Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press.

de León, L. (2000). The emergent participant: Interactive patterns in the socialization of Tzotzil (Mayan) infants. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 8, 131-161.

Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children. NY: New Press.

Deyhle, D., & Swisher, K. (1997). Research in American Indian and Alaska Native education. In M. W. Apple (Ed.), Review of Research in Education, 22, 113-194.

Erickson, F. (1987). Transformation and school success. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 18, 335-356.

Gaskins, S. (1999). Children’s daily lives in a Mayan village. In A. Goncü (Ed.), Children's engagement in the world. (pp. 25-60). New York: Cambridge.

Gutiérrez, K., & Rogoff, B. (2003). Cultural ways of learning: Individual traits or repertoires of practice. Educational Researcher, 32 (5), 19-25.

Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hoffman, E. (2008). Assessing the relationship between childhood bilingualism and social-emotional understanding. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 68 (10-B).

Hurtado, A. & Gurin, P. (2004). Chicana/o identity in a changing U.S. society, Quien soy? Quienes somos? Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Keller, H., Lamm, B., Abels, M., Yovsi, R., Borke, J., Jensen, H., Papaligoura, Z., Holub, C., Lo, W., Tomiyama, A. J., Su, Y., Wang, Y., & Chaudhary, N. (2006). Cultural models, socialization goals, and parental ethnotheories. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(2), 155-172.

Kim, H. S. (2002). We talk, therefore we think? A cultural analysis of the effect of talking on thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 828-842.

Laosa, L. M. (1980). Maternal teaching strategies in Chicano and Anglo-American families. Child Development, 51, 759-765.

Laosa, L. M. (1982). Schooling, occupation, culture, and family: The impact of parental schooling on the parent-child relationship. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 791-827.

Li, J. (2005). Mind or virtue: Western and Chinese beliefs about learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 190-194.

Lipka, J. (1994). Schools failing minority teachers. Educational Foundations, 8, 57-80.

López, A., Correa-Chávez, M., Rogoff, B., & Gutiérrez, K. (2010). Attention to instruction directed to another by U.S. Mexican-heritage children of varying cultural backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 46(3), 593-601.

López, A., Najafi, B., Rogoff, B., & Mejía-Arauz, R. (in press). Collaboration and helping as cultural practices. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), Oxford handbook of culture and psychology. NY: Oxford University Press.

Lorente, D. F. (2006). Infancia Nahua y transmision de la cosmovisión. Boletín de Antropología, 20(37), 152-168.

Madsen, M.C., & Shapira, A. (1970). Cooperative and competitive behavior of urban Afro-American, Anglo-American, Mexican-American, and Mexican village children. Developmental Psychology, 3, 16-20.

Marks, A. K., Szalacha, L. A., Lamarre, M., Boyd, M. J., & García Coll, C. (2007). Emerging ethnic identity and interethnic group social preferences in middle childhood: International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 501-513.

McNaughton, S. (2005). Classroom discourse and culture. Culture and Psychology, 11(3), 377-384.

Mejía Arauz, R., Roberts, A. L. D., & Rogoff, B. (2007a, July). Cultural variation in children's organization of participation through nonverbal conversation. XXXI International Congress of Psychology, Mexico City.

Mejía Arauz, R., Rogoff, B., Najafi, B., & Dexter, A. L. (2007b). Cultural variation in children’s participation in a shared activity. Child Development, 78(3), 1001-1014.

Mejía Arauz, R., Rogoff, B., & Paradise, R. (2005). Cultural variation in children's observation during a demonstration. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 282-291.

Orellana, M. F. (2009a). Translating childhoods: Immigrant youth, language, and culture. NJ:

Rutgers University Press.

Orellana, M. F. (2009b, November). Immigrant youth's contributions to families and society as language and culture brokers. Talk delivered at Fairhaven College.

Paradise, R. (1994). Interactional style and nonverbal meaning: Mazahua children learning how to be separate-but-together. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 25 (2), 156-172.

Paradise, R. (1996). Passivity or tacit collaboration: Mazahua interaction in cultural context. Learning and Instruction, 6 (4), 379-389.

Passel, J. (2004). Mexican immigration to the US. Retrieved from Migration Information Source website: http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=208

Philips, S. U. (1972). Participant structures and communicative competence. In C. Cazden, V. John, & D. Hymes, (Eds.). Functions of language in the classroom. (pp. 245-253). Waveland.

Quintana, S. M. (2008). Racial perspective taking ability. In S. M. Quintana & C. McKown (Eds.), Handbook of race, racism, and the developing child. Hobokin, NJ: Wiley.

Ramírez Sánchez, M. A. (2007). “Helping at home”: The concept of childhood and work among the Nahuas of Tlaxcala, Mexico. In B. Hungerland, M. Liebel, B. Milne & A. Wihstutz (Eds.), Working to become. (pp. 87-98). Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. NY: Oxford University Press.

Rogoff, B., Mistry, J., Göncü, A., & Mosier, C. (1993). Guided participation in cultural activity by toddlers and caregivers. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development, 58(8), 1-174.

Rogoff, B., Paradise, R., Mejia Arauz, R., Correa-Chávez, M., & Angelillo, C. (2003). Firsthand learning through intent participation. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 175-203.

Rogoff, B., Moore, L., Najafi, B., Dexter, A., Correa-Chávez, M. & Solís, J. (2007). Children’s development of cultural repertoires through participation in everyday routines and practices. In J. Grusec & P.D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization. (pp. 490-515). NY: Guilford.

Rosnow, R. & Rosenthal, R. L. (1996). Contrasts and interactions redux. Psychological Science, 7(4), 253-257.

Ruvalcaba, O., Rogoff, B., López, A., Correa-Chávez, M., & Gutiérrez, K. (2011). Nonverbal respeto in requests for help by Mexican heritage and European-heritage children.Manuscript submitted for publication.

Sharan, Y., & Sharan, S. (1992). Expanding cooperative learning through group investigation. NY: Teachers College Press.

Smetana, J. G. (1993). Understanding of social rules. In M. Bennett (Ed.), The development of social cognition. (pp. 111-141). NY: Guilford.

Tapia Uribe, F. M., LeVine, R. A., &LeVine, S. E. (1993). Maternal education and maternal behavior in Mexico. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 16(3), 395-408.

Valdés, G. (1996). Con respeto. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Yosso, T. J., Smith, W. A., Ceja, M., & Solórzano, D. G. (2009). Critical race theory, racial microagressions, and campus racial climate for Latina/o undergraduates. Harvard Educational Review, 79, 659-690.

Zentella, A. C. (1997). Growing up bilingual. NY: Blackwell.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4471/ijep.2012.06

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



International Journal of Educational Psychology - IJEP | ISSN: 2014-3591

Legal Deposit: B.34286-2012 | https://ijep.hipatiapress.com | ijep@hipatiapress.com