Achievement and Expectations of Immigrant, Second Generation, and Non-immigrant Black Students in U.S. Higher Education

Cynthia Hudley


Research on academic achievement contrasting Black immigrant, second generation, and non-immigrant students as distinct groups is surprisingly sparse in the higher education literature.  This study examined Black immigrant and second generation undergraduates from Africa and the Caribbean and non-immigrant Black American undergraduates, using the contrasting lenses of segmented assimilation theory and cultural ecological theory. Results for academic achievement favored second generation students, consistent with cultural ecological theory, while findings concerning expectations were more consistent with segmented assimilation theory.  However, findings were moderated by gender in complex ways.  This research indicates the need for more comprehensive theories of immigrant student achievement and motivation that incorporate consideration of the context surrounding both emigration from the home country and immigration to the host country.


Higher education, expectations, academic achievement, immigration

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International Journal of Educational Psychology - IJEP | ISSN: 2014-3591

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