Mindfulness as an Alternative for Supporting University Student Mental Health: Cognitive-Emotional and Depressive Self-Criticism Measures

Muhammad Abid Azam, Myriam Mongrain, Khushboo Vora, Meysam Pirbaglou, Saam Azargive, Tina Changoor, Noah Wayne, Crissa Guglietti, Alison Macpherson, Jane Irvine, Michael Rotondi, Dawn Smith, Daniel Perez, Paul Ritvo

Abstract


Increases in university-based mental health problems require alternative mental health programs, applicable to students with elevated psychological risks due to personality traits. This study examined the cognitive-emotional outcomes of a university mindfulness meditation (MM) program and their relationship with Self-Criticism (SC), a personality factor linked to depressive vulnerability. University students (n = 71) were assessed at baseline with the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a measure of depressive personality traits, and two outcome measures: Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Students attending the MM program were reassessed for outcomes at 3 follow up assessments over 2 semesters. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed improved within-subjects effects with large or very large effect sizes for the subsample that completed the MM program (n = 18) on the POMS Tension-Anxiety, POMS Depression, POMS Fatigue, and Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Multiple linear regression using self-criticism as a predictor of change in depressed mood revealed that higher self-criticism predicted greater reductions in POMS Depression. This study provides evidence for MM-related cognitive-emotional benefits, suggesting that students with elevated self-critical traits may derive exceptional benefits evident in greater reductions of depressed mood.


Keywords


mindfulness; meditation; mental health; university students; depression

Full Text:

PDF

References


(ACHA), A. C. H. A. (2013). Reference Group Executive Summary Spring 2013. Hanover.

Baker, F., Denniston, M., Zabora, J., Polland, A., & Dudley, W. N. (2002). A POMS short form for cancer patients: Psychometric and structural evaluation. Psycho-Oncology, 11(4), 273–281. doi:10.1002/pon.564

Baker, F., Denniston, M., Zabora, J., Polland, A., & Dudley, W. N. (2002). A POMS short form for cancer patients: psychometric and structural evaluation. Psycho-Oncology, 11(4), 273–81. doi:10.1002/pon.564

Bayram, N., & Bilgel, N. (2008). The prevalence and socio-demographic correlations of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(8), 667–72. doi:10.1007/s00127-008-0345-x

Blatt, S. J., Zohar, a H., Quinlan, D. M., Zuroff, D. C., & Mongrain, M. (1995). Subscales within the dependency factor of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64(2), 319–39. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6402_11

Bourgeois, A., LeUnes, A., & Meyers, M. (2010). Full-Scale and Short-Form of the Profile of Mood States : A Factor Analytic Comparison. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 355.

Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2011). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 187(3), 441–53. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2010.08.011

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. In Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences (Second Edi., pp. 273–407). Hillside, New Jersey: Lawrense Erlbaum Associates.

Cooke, R., Bewick, B. M., Barkham, M., Bradley, M., & Audin, K. (2006). Measuring, monitoring and managing the psychological well-being of first year university students. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 34(4), 505–517. doi:10.1080/03069880600942624

Corp., I. (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Armock, NY: IBM Corp.

Didonna, F. (2009a). Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness. (F. Didonna, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer New York. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09593-6

Didonna, F. (Ed.). (2009b). Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness. New York, NY: Springer New York. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09593-6

Downs, M. F., & Eisenberg, D. (2012). Suicide and Suicide Prevention Suicidal College Students. Journal of American College Health, 60(2).

Eisenberg, D., Gollust, S. E., Golberstein, E., & Hefner, J. L. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and suicidality among university students. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 534–42. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.77.4.534

Erdfelder, F., Lang, E., & Buchner, A.-G. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioural, and biomedical sciences. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 175–191.

Frewen, P., Lundberg, E., MacKinley, J., & Wrath, A. (2011). Assessment of Response to Mindfulness Meditation: Meditation Breath Attention Scores in Association with Subjective Measures of State and Trait Mindfulness and Difficulty Letting Go of Depressive Cognition. Mindfulness, 2(4), 254–269. doi:10.1007/s12671-011-0069-y

Fuhr, S., & Shean, G. (1992). Subtypes of Depression, Efficacy, and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. The Journal of Psychology, 5(126), 495–506.

Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits. A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(1), 35–43. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7

Hazlett-Stevens, H. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for comorbid anxiety and depression: case report and clinical considerations. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200(11), 999–1003. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182718a61

Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Douglas, N., Treadway, M. T., … Dusek, J. A. (2006). thickness, 16(17), 1893–1897.

Lees, J., & Davis, W. G. (2012). An Analysis of Counselling Services in Ontario Colleges Initial Report, (October).

Lynch, S., Gander, M.-L., Kohls, N., Kudielka, B., & Walach, H. (2011). Mindfulness-based Coping with University Life: A Non-randomized Wait-list-controlled Pilot Evaluation. Stress and Health, 27(5), 365–375. doi:10.1002/smi.1382

Mongrain, M., & Leather, F. (2006). Immature Dependence and Self-Criticism Predict the Recurrence of Major Depression, 62(6), 705–713. doi:10.1002/jclp

Norcross, J. C., Guadagnoli, E., & Prochaska, J. O. (1984). Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States (POMS): Two partial replications. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(5), 1270–1277.

Nyklícek, I., & Kuijpers, K. F. (2008). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on psychological well-being and quality of life: is increased mindfulness indeed the mechanism? Annals of Behavioral Medicine : A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 331–40. doi:10.1007/s12160-008-9030-2

Oman, D., Shapiro, S. L., Thoresen, C. E., Plante, T. G., & Flinders, T. (2008). Meditation Lowers Stress and Supports Forgiveness Among College Students : A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of American College Health, 56(5).

Pirbaglou, M., Cribbie, R., Irvine, J., Radhu, N., Vora, K., & Ritvo, P. (2013). Perfectionism, anxiety, and depressive distress: evidence for the mediating role of negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity. Journal of American College Health : J of ACH, 61(8), 477–83. doi:10.1080/07448481.2013.833932

Radhu, N., Daskalakis, Z. J., Arpin-Cribbie, C. a, Irvine, J., & Ritvo, P. (2012). Evaluating a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for maladaptive perfectionism in university students. Journal of American College Health, 60(5), 357–66. doi:10.1080/07448481.2011.630703

Regehr, C., Glancy, D., & Pitts, A. (2013). Interventions to reduce stress in university students: a review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148(1), 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.11.026

Reiss, S., Peterson, R. a, Gursky, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24(1), 1–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3947307

Rodriguez, B. F., Bruce, S. E., Pagano, M. A., & Keller, S. (2004). Factor Structure of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index in Longitudinal Study of Anxiety Disorder Patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(1), 79–91.

Rosenkranz, M. a, Davidson, R. J., Maccoon, D. G., Sheridan, J. F., Kalin, N. H., & Lutz, A. (2013). A comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and an active control in modulation of neurogenic inflammation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 27(1), 174–84. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2012.10.013

Sawatzky, R. G., Ratner, P. a, Richardson, C. G., Washburn, C., Sudmant, W., & Mirwaldt, P. (2012). Stress and depression in students: the mediating role of stress management self-efficacy. Nursing Research, 61(1), 13–21. doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e31823b1440

Tang, Y.-Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., … Posner, M. I. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(43), 17152–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707678104

Van den Hurk, P. a M., Wingens, T., Giommi, F., Barendregt, H. P., Speckens, A. E. M., & van Schie, H. T. (2011). On the Relationship Between the Practice of Mindfulness Meditation and Personality-an Exploratory Analysis of the Mediating Role of Mindfulness Skills. Mindfulness, 2(3), 194–200. doi:10.1007/s12671-011-0060-7

Viglione, D. J., Lovette, G. J., Gottlieb, R., & Friedberg, R. (1995). Depressive experiences questionnaire: an empirical exploration of the underlying theory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65(1), 91–9. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6501_7

Waller, R., Mahmood, T., Gandi, R., Delves, S., Humphrys, N., & Smith, D. (2005). Student mental health: how can psychiatrists better support the work of university medical centres and university counselling services? British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 33(1), 117–128. doi:10.1080/03069880412331335876

Young, L. a., & Baime, M. J. (2010). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: Effect on Emotional Distress in Older Adults. Complementary Health Practice Review, 15(2), 59–64. doi:10.1177/1533210110387687




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2016.1504

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



International Journal of Educational Psychology - IJEP | ISSN: 2014-3591

Legal Deposit: B.34286-2012 | https://ijep.hipatiapress.com | ijep@hipatiapress.com