The Politics of History

Indonesian High School Textbooks during the New Order period (1966-1998)

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https://doi.org/10.17583/hse.9606

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Abstract

This study traced historical footprints of national identity discourses production through high school history textbooks. The main question is, what did the New Order's politics look like to the national history of Indonesia? The method used was qualitative research that focused on analyzing the content of history textbooks. This research examined nine history textbooks from three national curriculums. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used to analyze the content of the textbooks. The results show that New Order was discoursing Indonesian national identity as a nation that runs a modern and militaristic society. The discourse of modernity presents Western culture as the only source of Indonesian progression. As a result, national history exclusively narrates many of the Dutch colonial policies as a determinant factor for the development of the Indonesian people. In contrast, history textbooks negated indigenous culture as traditional that is inappropriate for modern life. On the other hand, militaristic discourse exposing the army's success in defending Indonesian independence. Instead, civil government and diplomatic negotiation were negated as the loser.

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References

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Hüsken, F., Rutten, M. a., & Dirkse, J.-P. (1997). Indonesia Di Bawah Orde Baru: Pembangunan Dan Kesejahteraan Sosial [Indonesia's Experiences Under The New Order: Development And Social Welfare]. Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

McGregor, K., Melvin, J., & Pohlman, A. (2018). The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies

Google Scholar Crossref

McGregor, K. E. (2008). Ketika Sejarah Berseragam: Membongkar Ideologi Militer Dalam Menyusun Sejarah Indonesia [History in Uniform: Military Ideology and The Construction of Indonesia’s Past] (D. Oka, Trans.). Syarikat Indonesia.

Google Scholar Crossref

Melvin, J. (2018). The army and the Indonesian genocide: mechanics of mass murder. Routledge.

Google Scholar Crossref

Moedjanto, G., Sunarti, N., Kristanto, C. D., Haryono, A. a., & Padi, A. A. (1992). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia [National History of Indonesia for High School] (Vol. 2). Gramedia Widiasarana.

Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Nkrumah, K. (1965). Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Ltd.

Google Scholar Crossref

Nordholt, H. S. (2004). De-colonising Indonesian Historiography the Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies public lecture series ‘Focus Asia’ Sweden.

Google Scholar Crossref

Notosusanto, N., & Basri, Y. (Eds.). (1981). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia Untuk SMA [The National History of Indonesia for Secondary School] (Vol. 3). Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Google Scholar Crossref

Notosusanto, N., & Basri, Y. (Eds.). (1992). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia Untuk SMA [The National History of Indonesia for Secondary School] (Vol. 3). Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

Waridah, S. Q., Sukardi, a., & Sunarto. (2000). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia dan Umum untuk SMA [National history of Indonesia and the World for High School] (Vol. 2). Bumi Aksara.

Google Scholar Crossref

White, H. (2008). The Historical Event. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 19(2), 9-34.

Google Scholar Crossref

Widyosiswoyo, S. (1979). Sejarah Untuk SMA [History for High School] (Vol. 1). Intan.

Google Scholar Crossref

Wie, T. K. (2002). The Soeharto Era And After: Stability, Development, And Crisis, 1966–2000. In H. Dick, V. J. H. Houben, J. T. Lindblad, Adam, A. W. (2009). Membongkar Manipulasi Sejarah: Kontroversi Pelaku dan Peristiwa [Deconstructing Manipulation of History: Controversy of Actors and Events]. Kompas.

Google Scholar Crossref

Agung, A. A. G. (1983). Renville. Sinar Harapan.

Google Scholar Crossref

Ali, R. M. (2005). Pengantar Ilmu Sejarah Indonesia [Introduction to History of Indonesia]. LKIS.

Google Scholar Crossref

Andersons, B. R. O. G. (1972). Java in a time of revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944 - 1946 Cornell University Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Andersons, B. R. O. G. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflection on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.

Google Scholar Crossref

Badrika, I. W. (1997). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia dan Umum untuk SMA [National history of Indonesia and the World for High School] (Vol. 2). Erlangga.

Google Scholar Crossref

Bhakti, I. N. (2001). Militer dan Politik Kekerasan Orde Baru : Soeharto Di Belakang Peristiwa 27 Juli? [Military and Political Violence New Order: Suharto Behind the 27 July Incident?]. Mizan.

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Blackburn, K. (2010). War memory and nation-building in South East Asia. South East Asia Research, 18(1), 5-31. https://repository.nie.edu.sg/bitstream/10497/15379/1/SEAR-18-1-5.pdf

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Boadu, G. (2018). Change and continuity in Ghana’s intellectual history: From late 19th century to the eras of decolonisation and independence. African Studies, 78(4), 457-476. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/00020184.2018.1555309

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Budianta, M. (2007). Discourse of cultural identity in Indonesia during the 1997-1998 monetary crisis. In C. Kuan-Hsing & C. B. Huat (Eds.), The Inter-Asia Cultural Studies Reader (Vol. 1). Routledge. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203960981

Google Scholar Crossref

Chee, Y. J. (2018). Transmission of Memories of the Japanese Occupation in Singapore and Its Role in Building National Identity. HEMISPHERES: Dynamic Identities, 41.

Google Scholar Crossref

Crawford, K. (2001). Constructing National Memory: The 1940/41 Blitz in British History Textbooks. Internationale Schulbuchforschung, 23, 323-338.

Google Scholar Crossref

Darmiasti. (2002). Penulisan Buku-Buku Teks Pelajaran Sejarah Untuk Sekolah Menengah Atas 1964-1984: Sejarah Demi Kekuasaan [Graduate Thesis, Universitas Indonesia]. Jakarta. http://www.lontar.ui.ac.id/opac/themes/libri2/detail.jsp?id=71077&lokasi=lokal

Google Scholar Crossref

Derrida, J. (1997). Of Grammatology (G. C. Spivak, Trans.). The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Dhakidae, D. (2003). Cendekiawan Dan Kekuasaan Dalam Negara Orde Baru [Scholars and State Power in the New Order]. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Google Scholar Crossref

Dijk, T. A. v. (1980). Macrostructures: An Interdisciplinary Study of Global Structures in Discourse, Interaction, and Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Google Scholar Crossref

Forber, P., & Griffith, E. (2011). Historical Reconstruction: Gaining Epistemic Access to the Deep Past. Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology, 3(3), 19. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/ptb.6959004.0003.003

Google Scholar Crossref

Gerges, F. A. (2013). The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World. Cambridge University Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Gocking, R. S. (2005). The history of Ghana. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Google Scholar Crossref

Gordon, A. (2018). A Last Word: Amendments and Corrections to Indonesia’s Colonial Surplus 1880–1939. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 48(3), 508-518. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2018.1433865

Google Scholar Crossref

Guex, S. (2015). The History Textbook Controversy in Japan and South Korea. Cipango – French Journal of Japanese Studies, 4. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4000/cjs.968

Google Scholar Crossref

Hasyim, A. W. (2020). Becoming Indonesia: Political Gait of the Arabs in the Pre-Independence Period. INSANIYAT: Journal of Islam and Humanities, 4(2). https://doi.org/iyat.v4i2.15229

Google Scholar Crossref

Hasyim, A. W., & Haryono, P. (2019). Jamiat Kheir dan Al-Irsyad: Kajian Komunitas Arab dalam Modernisasi Pendidikan Islam Awal Abad XX di Jakarta. Al-Turas, 25(2), 163-176. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15408/bat.v25i2.12798

Google Scholar Crossref

Heidegger, M. (1996). Being and Time (J. Stambaugh, Trans.). SUNY.

Google Scholar Crossref

Henley, D. (1996). Nationalism and Regionalism in a Colonial Context: Minahasa in the Dutch East Indies. KITLV Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Hill, D. T. (2006). The Press in New Order Indonesia. Equinox Publishing.

Google Scholar Crossref

History of Ghana. (2009). (F. P. Miller, A. F. Vandome, & J. McBrewster, Eds.). Alphascript Publishing.

Google Scholar Crossref

Hüsken, F., Rutten, M. a., & Dirkse, J.-P. (1997). Indonesia Di Bawah Orde Baru: Pembangunan Dan Kesejahteraan Sosial [Indonesia's Experiences Under The New Order: Development And Social Welfare]. Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.

Google Scholar Crossref

Idris, Z. H., & Tugiyono. (1979). Sejarah Untuk SMA [History for High School]. Mutiara.

Google Scholar Crossref

Kartodirdjo, S. (1992). Pendekatan Ilmu Sosial dalam Metodologi Sejarah [Social sciences approach in Methodology of History]. Gramedia.

Google Scholar Crossref

Kartodirdjo, S. (2005). Pengantar Sejarah Indonesia Baru: Sejak Indische sampai Indonesia [Introduction to the New History of Indonesia: From Indische to Indonesia]. Kompas.

Google Scholar Crossref

KhosraviNik, M. (2010). Actor descriptions, action attributions, and argumentation: towards a systematization of CDA analytical categories in the representation of social groups. Critical Discourse Studies, 7(1), 55 - 72. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/17405900903453948

Google Scholar Crossref

McCarthy, T. (2009). Teori Kritis Jurgen Habermas [The Critical Theory of Jurgen Habermas] (Nurhadi, Trans.). Kreasi Wacana.

Google Scholar Crossref

McGregor, K., Melvin, J., & Pohlman, A. (2018). The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies

Google Scholar Crossref

McGregor, K. E. (2008). Ketika Sejarah Berseragam: Membongkar Ideologi Militer Dalam Menyusun Sejarah Indonesia [History in Uniform: Military Ideology and The Construction of Indonesia’s Past] (D. Oka, Trans.). Syarikat Indonesia.

Google Scholar Crossref

Melvin, J. (2018). The army and the Indonesian genocide: mechanics of mass murder. Routledge.

Google Scholar Crossref

Moedjanto, G., Sunarti, N., Kristanto, C. D., Haryono, A. a., & Padi, A. A. (1992). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia [National History of Indonesia for High School] (Vol. 2). Gramedia Widiasarana.

Google Scholar Crossref

Munslow, A. (1997). Deconstructing history. Routledge.

Google Scholar Crossref

Niel, R. v. (2009). Munculnya Elite Modern Indonesia [The Emergence of the Indonesian Elite] (Z. D. Noer, Trans.). Pustaka Jaya.

Google Scholar Crossref

Nkrumah, K. (1965). Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Ltd.

Google Scholar Crossref

Nordholt, H. S. (2004). De-colonising Indonesian Historiography the Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies public lecture series ‘Focus Asia’ Sweden.

Google Scholar Crossref

Notosusanto, N., & Basri, Y. (Eds.). (1981). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia Untuk SMA [The National History of Indonesia for Secondary School] (Vol. 3). Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Google Scholar Crossref

Notosusanto, N., & Basri, Y. (Eds.). (1992). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia Untuk SMA [The National History of Indonesia for Secondary School] (Vol. 3). Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

Posthumus, G. A. (1972). The Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI). University Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Purwanto, B. (2006). Gagalnya Historiografi Indonesia?! [The Failure of Indonesian Historiography?!]. Ombak.

Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

Sardiman, A. M., and , & Kusriyantinah. (1996). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia dan Umum untuk SMA [National history of Indonesia and the World for High School] (Vol. 2a). Kendang Sari.

Google Scholar Crossref

Sardiman, A. M., & Lestariningsih, A. D. (2017). Sejarah Indonesia untuk SMA [The History of Indonesia for High School] Kelas [Grade] XI Semester 1. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

Waridah, S. Q., Sukardi, a., & Sunarto. (2000). Sejarah Nasional Indonesia dan Umum untuk SMA [National history of Indonesia and the World for High School] (Vol. 2). Bumi Aksara.

Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Google Scholar Crossref

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Published

2022-02-23

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Purwanta, H., & Novianto, V. (2022). The Politics of History: Indonesian High School Textbooks during the New Order period (1966-1998). Social and Education History, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.17583/hse.9606

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