Accra turns lives around: female migrant traders and their empowerment experiences in Accra, Ghana.

Charlotte Wrigley Asante

Abstract


This paper examines young female migrants working as petty traders in the Accra Metropolitan Area. It discusses the processes through which female migrant traders as economic actors have used migration and trading as pathways to empower themselves through an analysis of their control over material and non-material resources, their choices in life and their ability to influence the direction of change. The author argues that young female migrants must not be looked at only in the context of vulnerability but rather seen as agents of change and people who can change their life circumstances, that of their families and make life choices. Facilitation of measures by relevant stakeholders to support the efforts of these female migrant traders as positive agents of change is recommended.


Keywords


Empowerment, Ghana, migrant, trading, women, gender

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ackah, C. & Medvedev, D. (2010). Internal Migration in Ghana: determinants and welfare impacts. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5273. Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/3760/WPS5273.pdf?sequence=1 accessed 15/07/2012

Agyei, J. & Ofosu-Mensah Ababio, E. (2009). Historical Overview of Internal Migration in Ghana, in Anarfi, J. K. and Kwankye, S. O. (eds) Independent Migration of Children in Ghana. Institute of Statistical Social and Economic Research, Legon, Ghana, 9-44.

Asiedu, A. B. & Agyei-Mensah, S. (2008). Traders on the run: the activities of street vendors in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 52 (3): 191-202.

Attanapola, C. T. (2004). Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export processing industries in Sri Lanka. Social Science and Medicine, 58 (11): 2301-2312.

Awumbila, M., Alhassan, O., Badasu, D. M., Bosiakoh, T. A. & Dankyi, E. K. (2011). Socio-cultural Dimensions of Migration in Ghana. Migration Studies Technical Paper Series, No. 3. Centre for Migration Studies, University of Ghana.

Awumbila, M. & Ardayfio –Schandorf, E. (2008). Gendered poverty, migration and livelihood strategies of female porters in Accra, Ghana. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 52 (3): 171-179.

Chammartin, G. (2008). Migrant women worker: seizing opportunities, upholding rights. International Labour Office, Geneva. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/press-and-media-centre/insight/WCMS_098491/lang--en/index.htm accessed 04/05/2012

Darkwah, A. 2007. Work as duty and work as joy: understanding the role of work in the lives of Ghanaian female traders of global consumer items in Harley S. (ed) Women’s Labor in the global economy: speaking multiple voices. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey and London, 206-220.

Erman, T., Kalaycioglu, S. & Rittersberger-Tilic, H. (2002). Money-earning activities and empowerment experiences of rural migrant women in the city: the case of Turkey. Women’s Studies International Forum 25 (4): 395-410.

Esplen, E. & Brody, A. (2007). Putting Gender back in the picture: rethinking women’s economic empowerment. BRIDGE 19, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton.

Hashemi, S.M., Schuler, S.R. & Riley. A. P. (1996). Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh. World Development, 24 (4): 635-653.

Hoang, L. A. (2011). Gender Identity and Agency in Migration Decision-making: Evidence from Vietnam Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37 (9): 1441-1457.

Kabeer, N. (2010). Gender Equality and Women’s empowerment: A critical analysis of the third Millennium Development Goal 1. Gender and Development, 13 (1): 13-24.

Kabeer, N. (2001). Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment, in Discussing Women’s Empowerment-Theory and Practice. Sida Studies No.3. Novum Grafiska AB Stockholm, 17-57.

King, R., Money, J. & Murawska, M. (2011). Twenty years of JEMS: A Geographical Content Analysis. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 37 (9): 1539-1550.

Kwankye, S. O. & Addoquaye Tagoe, C. (2009). City life outside the home: the experiences of independent child migrants in Ghana, in Anarfi, J.K. and Kwankye, S. O. (eds) Independent migration of children in Ghana, Institute of Statistical Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, 132-170.

Malhotra , A., Schuler, S. R. & Boender, C. (2002). Measuring Women’s Empowerment as a Variable in International Development, June 2002. http://www.siyanda.org/static/malhotra_empvariable.htm accessed 07/10/2004.

Mayoux, L. 2002. Women’s Empowerment or Feminisation of Debt: Towards a New Agenda in African Micro Finance. Report Based on a One World Action Conference. London March 2002. Available at: http://www.eldis.org/static/DOC11355.htm accessed 10/10/2004.

Mitullah, W. V. (2003). Street vending in African cities: synthesis of empirical findings from Kenya, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. World Bank : Washington, DC.

Moser, C. O. (1993). Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training. Routledge, London.

Nikoi, G. 1998. Gender and Development. Ghana Universities Press. 1998.

Oppong, C. (2005). Conjugal resources, power, decision making and domestic labour: some historical and recent evidence of modernity from Ghanaian families. University of Ghana, Legon. Accra.

Overa, R. (2007). When men do women’s work: structural adjustment, unemployment and changing gender relations in the informal economy of Accra, Ghana. Journal of Modern African Studies, 45 (4): 539-563.

World Bank (2004). What is Empowerment? Available at: http://Inweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/sdvext.nsf/68ByDocName/WhatIsEmpowerment. accessed 21/10/2004.

Wright, K. (2011). Constructing Migrant Wellbeing: An Exploration of Life Satisfaction amongst Peruvian Migrants in London. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 37 (9): 1459-1475.

Wrigley-Asante, C. (2012a). Out of the dark but not out of the cage: women’s empowerment and gender relations in the Dangme West district of Ghana. Gender, Place and Culture, 19 (3): 344-363.

Wrigley-Asante, C. 2012. Unraveling the health-related challenges of women in informal economy: Accounts of women in cross border trading in Accra, Ghana. GeoJournal. First published online 3 February 2012, Springer. DOI 10.1007/s10708-012-9449-7.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4471/generos.2014.37

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Copyright (c)





Géneros - Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies | ISSN: 2014-3613

Legal Deposit : B.34284-2012 | https://generos.hipatiapress.com | generos@hipatiapress.com