A Marathon Search for My Deserved Body: How a Chinese Male-to-Female Manages Gender Nonconformity

Fung Kei Cheng


The hegemony of dichotomous gender identity dominates the discourse on the issues of sex and gender. Through this means, irrational fear brings about prejudice, stigmatisation, discrimination, and exclusion towards individuals who suffer from gender nonconformity. Despite relevant substantial literature, there is a paucity of research on Chinese transgender people. This case study investigates how a Chinese trans-woman deals with her gender incongruence and anxiety through sex realignment surgery. It conducts in-depth, semi-structured interviews, and processes data by means of interpretative phenomenological analysis, with the help of a computerised qualitative data analysis package. It also carries out member checking to enrich triangulation effects. The results unmask the way the participant is being incrementally liberated from being a pretend man in her current state of half-man-non-woman, and her efforts in achieving the gender that she desires. This study reveals factors that influence the embodiment of bodily integrity and psychological adjustments against distress induced by gender nonconformity, therefore supporting the development of a gender-affirming society that benefits both individuals and public interests.


bodily integrity; gender dysphoria; stigma management; transphobia; transwoman

Full Text:



Adler, P. A., Kless, S. J., & Adler, P. (1992). Socialisation to gender roles: Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education, 65(3), 169-187.

Alexander, J. (2005). Transgender rhetorics: (Re)composing narratives of the gendered body. College Composition and Communication, 57(1), 45-82.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric

GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 9(3) 252


Anney, V. N. (2014). Ensuring the quality of the findings of qualitative

research: Looking at trustworthiness criteria. Journal of Emerging

Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 5(2), 272-281. Best, J., Tang, W., Zhang, Y., Han, L., Liu, F., Huang, S., Yang, B., Wei, C., & Tucker, J. D. (2015). Sexual behaviours and HIV/syphilis testing among transgender individuals in China: Implications for expanding HIV testing services. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 42(5), 281-

doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000269

Bettcher, T. M. (2014). Transphobia. Transgender Studies Quarterly, 1(1-2),

-251. doi: 10.1215/23289252-2400181

Bilodeau, B. L., & Renn, K. A. (2005). Analysis of LGBT identity:

Development models and implications for practice. New Directions

for Student Services, 111, 25-39.

Bischoff, A. (2011). Passing the test: The transgender self, society and

femininity. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from


Boyce, S., Barrington, B., Clare, H., Arandi, C. G., & Paz-Bailey, G. (2012). Facilitating access to sexual health services for men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons in Guatemala City. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 14(3), 313-327. doi:


Boza, C., & Perry, K. N. (2014). Gender-related victimisation, perceived

social support, and predictors of depression among transgender Australians. International Journal of Transgenderism, 15(1), 35-52. doi: 10.1080/15532739.2014.890558

Bucar, E. M. (2010). Bodies at the margins: The case of transsexuality in Catholic and Shia ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics, 38(4), 601- 615.

Burdge, B. J. (2014). Being true, whole, and strong: A phenomenology of transgenderism as a valued life experience. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 26(3), 355-382. doi: 10.1080/10538720.2014.926232

Chakrapani, V., Shunmugam, M., Newman, P. A., Kershaw, T., & Dubrow, R. (2015). HIV status disclosure and condom use among HIV- positive men who have sex with men and Hijras (male-to-female

Cheng – Chinese Gender Nonconformity

transgender people) in India: Implications for prevention. Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services, 14(1), 26-44. doi: 10.1080/15381501.2013.859113

Chong, A. M. L., & Liu, S. (2016). Receive or give? Contemporary views among middle-aged and older Chinese adults on filial piety and well-being in Hong Kong. Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development. doi: 10.1080/02185385.2015.1131619

Cicero, E. C., & Black, B. P. (2016). I was a spectacle ... A freak show at the circus: A transgendered person’s ED experience and implications for nursing practice. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 42(1), 25-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2015.08.012

Costa, L. M., & Matzner, A. J. (2007). Male bodies, women's souls: Personal narratives of Thailand's transgendered youth. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc.

de Vries, A. L. C., McGuire, J. K., Steensma, T. D., Wagenaar, E. C. F., Doreleijers, T. A. H., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2014). Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. Pediatrics, 134(4), 696-704. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013- 2958

Dekkers, W. (2009). Routine (non-religious) neonatal circumcision and bodily integrity: A transatlantic dialogue. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 19(2), 125-146.

Douglas, T. (2014). Criminal rehabilitation through medical intervention: Moral liability and the right to bodily integrity. Journal of Ethics, 18, 101-122. doi: 10.1007/s10892-014-9161-6

Drescher, J., Cohen-Kettenis, P., & Winter, S. (2012). Minding the body: Situating gender identity diagnoses in the ICD-11. International Review of Psychiatry, 24(6), 568-577. doi: 10.3109/09540261.2012.741575

Ehrensaft, D. (2012). From gender identity disorder to gender identity creativity: True gender self child therapy. Journal of Homosexuality, 59(3), 337-356. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2012.653303

Ehrensaft, D. (2014). Found in transition: Our littlest transgender people. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 50(4), 571-592. doi: 10.1080/00107530.2014.942591

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research.

GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 9(3) 254

Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.

Ellis, S. J., Bailey, L., & McNeil, J. (2015). Trans people’s experiences of mental health and gender identity services: A UK study. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 19(1), 4-20. doi:


Ellis, S. J., McNeil, J., & Bailey, L. (2014). Gender, stage of transition and

situational avoidance: A UK study of trans people’s experiences. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 29(3), 351-364. doi: 10.1080/14681994.2014.902925

Finn, M., & Dell, P. (1999). Practices of body management: Transgenderism and embodiment. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 9, 463-476.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219-245.

Fraser, L. (2009). Depth psychotherapy with transgender people. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 24(2), 126-142. doi: 10.1080/14681990903003878

Fromm, E. (1971). The crisis of psychoanalysis: Essays on Freud, Marx, and social psychology. Greenwich, USA: Fawcett Publications, Inc.

Futty, J. T. (2010). Challenges posed by transgender: Passing within ambiguities and interrelations. Graudate Journal of Social Science, 7(2), 57-75.

Gagne, P., & Tewksbury, R. (1999). Knowledge and power, body and self: An analysis of knowledge systems and the transgendered self. The Sociological Quarterly, 40(1), 59-83.

Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, USA: Prentice-Hall.

Garvey, J. C., & Rankin, S. R. (2015). The influence of campus experiences on the level of outness among trans-spectrum and queer-spectrum students. Journal of Homosexuality, 62(3), 374-393. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2014.977113

Gazzola, S. B., & Morrison, M. A. (2014). Cultural and personally endorsed stereotypes of transgender men and transgender women: Notable correspondence or disjunction. International Journal of Transgenderism, 15(2), 76-99. doi: 10.1080/15532739.2014.937041

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity.

Cheng – Chinese Gender Nonconformity

London, UK: Penguin.

Gracia, D. (1998). Ownership of the human body: Some historical remarks.

In H. A. M. J. T. Have, J. V. M. Welie, & S. F. Spicker (Eds.),

Ownership of the human body: Philosophical considerations on the use of the human body and its parts in healthcare (pp. 67-79). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B. V.

Graham, L. F., Crissman, H. P., Tocco, J., Hughes, L. A., Snow, R. C., & Padilla, M. B. (2014). Interpersonal relationships and social support in transitioning narratives of Black transgender women in Detroit. International Journal of Transgenderism, 15(2), 100-113. doi: 10.1080/15532739.2014.937042

Guzman-Parra, J., Paulino-Matos, P., de Diego-Otero, Y., Perez-Costillas, L., Villena-Jimena, A., Garcia-Encinas, M. A., & Bergero-Miguel, T. (2014). Substance use and social anxiety in transsexual individuals. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 10(3), 162-167. doi: 10.1080/15504263.2014.930658

Hackimer, L., & Proctor, S. L. (2015). Considering the community influence for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(3), 277-290. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2014.944114

Hagen, D. B., & Galupo, M. P. (2014). Trans individuals’ experiences of gendered language with health care providers: Recommendations for practitioners. International Journal of Transgenderism, 15(1), 16-34. doi: 10.1080/15532739.2014.890560

Hamel, J., Dufour, S., & Fortin, D. (1993). Case study methods. California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Harper, A., & Singh, A. (2014). Supporting ally development with families of trans and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counselling, 8(4), 376-388. doi: 10.1080/15538605.2014.960127

He, C. (2014). Performance and the politics of gender: Transgender performance in contemporary Chinese films. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 21(5), 622-636. doi: 10.1080/0966369X.2013.810595

Hines, S. (2007). (Trans)forming gender: Social change and transgender citizenship. Sociological Research Online, 12(1), 1-14. doi:

GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 9(3) 256


Hoffman, B. R. (2014). The interaction of drug use, sex work, and HIV

among transgender women. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(8), 1049-

doi: 10.3109/10826084.2013.855787

Isaksen, L. W. (2002). Masculine dignity and the dirty body. NORA - Nordic

Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 10(3), 137-146. doi:


Jiang, H., Wei, X., Zhu, X., Wang, H., & Li, Q. (2014). Transgender patients

need better protection in China. The Lancet, 384, 2108-2109. Jobson, G. A., Theron, L. B., Kaggwa, J. K., & Kim, H.-J. (2012). Transgender in Africa: Invisible, inaccessible, or ignored. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 9(3), 160-163. doi:


Jun, P. (2010). Transgender in China. Journal of LGBT Youth, 7(4), 346-358.

doi: 10.1080/19361653.2010.512518

Kalra, G. (2012). Hijras: The unique transgender culture of India.

International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 5(2), 121-126.

doi: 10.1080/17542863.2011.570915

Kaplan, R. L., Wagner, G. J., Nehme, S., Aunon, F., Khouri, D., & Mokhbat,

J. (2015). Forms of safety and their impact on health: An exploration of HIV/AIDS-related risk and resilience among trans women in Lebanon. Health Care for Women International, 36(8), 917-935. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2014.896012

Kerry, S. C. (2014). Sistergirls/brotherboys: The status of indigenous transgender Australians. International Journal of Transgenderism, 15(3-4), 173-186. doi: 10.1080/15532739.2014.995262

Kile, S. E. (2013). Transgender performance in early modern China. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 24(2), 130-149. doi: 10.1215/10407391-2335085

King, M. E., Winter, S., & Webster, B. (2009). Contact reduces transprejudice: A study on attitudes towards transgenderism and transgender civil rights in Hong Kong. International Journal of Sexual Health, 21(1), 17-34. doi: 10.1080/19317610802434609

Koch-Rein, A. (2006). Passing moments: FTM-bodies in contemporary transgender photography. ZtG Bulletin Texte, 32, 156-179.

Ku, H.-L., Lin, C.-S., Chao, H.-T., Tu, P.-C., Li, C.-T., Cheng, C.-M., Su, T.-

Cheng – Chinese Gender Nonconformity

P., Lee, Y.-C., & Hsieh, J.-C. (2013). Brain signature characterising the body-brain-mind axis of transsexuals. PloS One, 8(7, e70808), 1- 8. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070808

Kuvalanka, K. A., Weiner, J. L., & Mahan, D. (2014). Child, family, and community transformations: Findings from interviews with mothers of transgender girls. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 10(4), 354- 379. doi: 10.1080/1550428X.2013.834529

Lemma, A. (2013). The body one has and the body one is: Understanding the transsexual’s need to be seen. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 94, 277-292. doi: 10.1111/j.1745- 8315.2012.00663.x

Leung, H. H.-S. (2012). Trans on screen. In H. Chiang (Ed.), Transgender China (pp. 183-198). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Li, S. L. (2003). Cross-dressing in Chinese opera. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Liang, M.-y. 梁. (2012). On the transsexual phenomena and the relevant culture in ancient Chinese Literature 論中國古代文學中的變性人 現象與文化. Journal of Neijiang Normal University (Social Sciences) 內江師範學院學報(社會科學), 27(3), 37-41.

Liang, M. Y. 梁., & Xu, Z. L. 徐. (2012). On the transsexual phenomena and the relevant culture in dynasties of Ming and Ching 淺探明清文學 中的變性人現象與文化的關係. Times Literature 時代文學, 2, 183-184.

Lietz, C. A., & Zayas, L. E. (2010). Evaluating qualitative research for social work practitioners. Advances in Social Work, 11(2), 188-202.

Lo, S., & Horton, R. (2016). Transgender health: An opportunity for global

health equity. The Lancet, 2016(June 17), 1-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-


Loeb, E. (2008). Cutting it off: Bodily integrity, identity disorders, and the

sovereign stakes of corporeal desire in US law. Women's Studies

Quarterly, 36(3-4), 44-63.

Ma, J. L. C. (1997). A systems approach to the social difficulties of

transsexuals in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Therapy, 19, 71-88. Ma, J. L. C. (1999). Social work practice with transsexuals in Hong Kong who apply for sex reassignment surgery. Social Work in Health

Care, 29(2), 85-103. doi: 0.1300/J010v29n02_05

GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 9(3) 258

Maguen, S., & Shipherd, J. C. (2010). Suicide risk among transgender individuals. Psychology and Sexuality, 1(1), 34-43. doi: 10.1080/19419891003634430

Mathur, K. (2008). Body as space, body as site: Bodily integrity and women’s empowerment in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 43(17), 54-63.

Mead, G. H. (1913). The social self. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 10, 374-380.

Nadal, K. L., Davidoff, K. C., & Fujii-Doe, W. (2014). Transgender women and the sex work industry: Roots in systemic, institutional, and interpersonal discrimination. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 15(2), 169-183. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2014.867572

Norton, A. T., & Herek, G. M. (2013). Heterosexuals’ attitudes towards transgender people: Findings from a national probability sample of U.S. adults. Sex Roles, 68(11), 738-753. doi: 10.1007/s11199-011- 0110-6

Nuttbrock, L., Hwahng, S., Bockting, W., Rosenblum, A., Mason, M., Macri, M., & Becker, J. (2010). Psychiatric impact of gender-related abuse across the life course of male-to-female transgender persons. The Journal of Sex Research, 47(1), 12-23. doi: 10.1080/00224490903062258

Nuttbrock, L. A. (2012). Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 31(3), 236- 241. doi: 10.1080/10550887.2012.694600

Patosalmi, M. (2009). Bodily integrity and conceptions of subjectivity. Hypatia, 24(2), 125-141.

Perez-Brumer, A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Oldenburg, C. E., & Bockting, W. (2015). Individual- and structural-level risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Behavioural Medicine, 41(3), 164-171. doi: 10.1080/08964289.2015.1028322

Priola, V., Lasio, D., De Simone, S., & Serri, F. (2014). The sound of silence: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender discrimination in inclusive organisations. British Journal of Management, 25, 488-502. doi: 10.1111/1467-8551.12043

Qi, D. T. 祁. (2002). The soul betrays the body: Discussion on transsexualism 靈魂對肉體的背叛:變性人現象綜述. Chinese

Cheng – Chinese Gender Nonconformity

Journal of Sociology 社會, 4, 27-30.

Ramachandran, G. (2009). Against the right to bodily integrity: Of cyborgs

and human rights. Denver University Law Review, 87(1), 1-57. Raymond, J. G. (1994). The transsexual empire: The making of the she-

male. New York: Teachers College Press.

Reisner, S. L., Poteat, T., Keatley, J., Cabral, M., Mothopeng, T., Dunham,

E., Holland, C. E., Max, R., & Baral, S. D. (2016). Global health burden and needs of transgender populations: A review. The Lancet, 2016(June 17), 1-23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00684-X

Rigney, M. (2003). Brandon goes to Hollywood: Boys don’t cry and the transgender body in film. Film Criticism, 28(2), 4-71.

Rihoux, B., & Lobe, B. (2009). The case for qualitative comparative analysis (QCA): Adding leverage for thick cross-case comparison. In D. Byrne & C. C. Ragin (Eds.), The SAGA handbook of case-based methods (pp. 221-242). London, UK: SAGE Publications Limited.

Riley, E. A., Clemson, L., Sitharthan, G., & Diamond, M. (2013). Surviving a gender-variant childhood: The views of transgender adults on the needs of gender-variant children and their parents. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 39(3), 241-263. doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2011.628439

Roberto, K. R. (2011). Inflexible bodies: Metadata for transgender identities. Journal of Information Ethics, 20(2), 56-64. doi: 10.3172/JIE.20.2.56

Schotsmans, P. (1998). Ownership of the body: A personalist perspective. In H. A. M. J. Ten Have, J. V. M. Welie, & S. F. Spicker (Eds.), Ownership of the human body: Philosophical considerations on the use of the human body and its parts in healthcare (pp. 159-172). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B. V.

Sell, I. (2001). Not man, not woman: Psychospiritual characteristics of a Western third gender. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 33(1), 16-36.

Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information, 22, 63-75.

Shu, L. 舒., & Li, W. 李. (2001). Ethical thinking of transsexualism operation 變性術的倫理學思考. Chinese Medical Ethics 中國醫學

GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 9(3) 260

倫理學, 79, 22-23.

Singh, A. A., Meng, S., & Hansen, A. (2013). It's already hard enough being

a student: Developing affirming college environments for trans youth. Journal of LGBT Youth, 10(3), 208-223. doi: 10.1080/19361653.2013.800770

Siverskog, A. (2014). They just don’t have a clue: Transgender aging and implications for social work. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 57(2-4), 386-406. doi: 10.1080/01634372.2014.895472

Slatman, J. (2012). Phenomenology of bodily integrity in disfiguring breast cancer. Hypatia, 27(2), 281-300.

Slatman, J., & Widdershoven, G. (2010). Hand transplants and bodily integrity. Body and Society, 16(3), 69-92. doi: 10.1177/1357034X10373406

Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method and research. London, UK: SAGE Publications Limited.

Stanghellini, G., & Lysaker, P. H. (2007). The psychotherapy of schizophrenia through the lens of phenomenology: Intersubjectivity and the search for the recovery of first- and second-person awareness. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 61(2), 163-179.

Stone, A. L. (2013). Flexible queers, serious bodies: Transgender inclusion in queer spaces. Journal of Homosexuality, 60(12), 1647-1665. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2013.834209

Thomas, G. (2011). How to do your case study: A guide for students and researchers. London: SAGE Publications Limited.

Tsoi, W. F. (1992). Male and female transsexuals: A comparison. Singapore Medical Journal, 33, 182-185.

Vance, S. R., Ehrensaft, D., & Rosenthal, S. M. (2014). Psychological and medical care of gender nonconforming youth. Pediatrics, 134, 1184- 1192. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0772

Weiss, J. T. (2010). Gender autonomy, transgender identity and substantive due process: Finding a rational basis for Lawrence v. Texas. Journal of Race, Gender and Ethnicity, 5(1), 2-38.

Wen, Y. 文. (2009). The book of the gender traveller 性別漂泊的旅行者之 書. In J. C.-J. H. 何春蕤 (Ed.), Queer sounding 酷兒新聲 (pp. 79- 119). Chungli, Taiwan 中壢,台灣: National Central University

Cheng – Chinese Gender Nonconformity

Sex/Sexuality Research Centre 國立中央大學性/別研究室. Wilczynski, C., & Emanuele, M. A. (2014). Treating a transgender patient: Overview of the guidelines. Postgraduate Medicine, 126(7), 121-

doi: 10.3810/pgm.2014.11.2840

Williams, C. (2014). Transgender. Transgender Studies Quarterly, 1(1-2),

-234. doi: 10.1215/23289252-2400136

Winter, S. (2006). Thai transgenders in focus: Demographics, transitions and

identities. International Journal of Transgenderism, 9(1), 15-27. doi:


Winter, S., & Doussantousse, S. (2009). Transpeople, hormones, and health

Risks in Southeast Asia: A Lao study. International Journal of

Sexual Health, 21(1), 35-48. doi: 10.1080/19317610802554141 Winter, S., Settle, E., Wylie, K., Reisner, S., Cabral, M., Knudson, G., & Baral, S. (2016). Synergies in health and human rights: A call to action to improve transgender health. The Lancet, 2016(June 17), 1-

doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30653-5

Wolfradt, U., & Neumann, K. (2001). Depersonalisation, self-esteem and

body image in male-to-female transsexuals compared to male and

female controls. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 30(3), 301-310. Wood, A. W., & Conley, A. H. (2014). Loss of religious or spiritual identities among the LGBT population. Counselling and Values, 59(1), 95-

doi: 10.1002/j.2161-007X.2014.00044.x

Wu, C.-u. (2012a). Performing transgender desire: Male cross-dressing. In

H. Chiang (Ed.), Transgender China (pp. 225-262). New York:

Palgrave Macmillan.

Wu, G.-p. 吳. (2011). On transgender’s right of gender transition after

marriage and the relationship in marriage and family 變性人婚後變 性權及其婚姻家庭關係問題探析. Journal of Southwest University of Political Science and Law 西南政法大學學報, 13(3), 59-68. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-4355.2011.03.08

Wu, G.-p. 吳. (2012b). On the right of natural person’s gender transition after marriage 已婚者變性權問題初探. Journal of Poltical Science and Law 政法學刊, 29(3), 5-10.

Xiong, Y. D. 熊. (2014). Social media and gender identity of transgender people: An example of a transgender group on facebook 網路社區

GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 9(3) 262


Journalism and Communication 新聞傳播, 9, 120-121. Yadegarfard, M., Ho, R., & Bahramabadian, F. (2013). Influences on loneliness, depression, sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation among Thai transgender youth. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 15(6),

-737. doi: 10.1080/13691058.2013.784362

Yin, R. K. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park,

California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Yin, R. K. (2003). Applications of case study research (2nd ed.). Thousand

Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.).

Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Youngson, R. M. (1999). The madness of Prince Hamlet and other extraordinary states of mind. London: Robinson Publishing Limited. Zhang, Q. F. (2015). Sexuality and the official construction of occidentalism in Maoist and early post-Mao China. European Journal of Cultural

Studies, 18(1), 86-107. doi: 10.1177/1367549414557807

Zhou, Z. (2012). The androgynous ideal in scholar-beauty romances: A historical and cultural view. In H. Chiang (Ed.), Transgender China

(pp. 97-126). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/generos.2020.6206

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Copyright (c) 2020 Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Géneros - Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies | ISSN: 2014-3613

Legal Deposit : B.34284-2012 | https://generos.hipatiapress.com | generos@hipatiapress.com