Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Spain. A quantitative analysis

Eva Espinar-Ruiz, Begoña López-Monsalve


A growing number of authors have been suggesting the necessary incorporation of children in the analysis of gender violence and, specifically, in the analysis of intimate partner violence against women (IPV). Such incorporation would be relevant not only for reducing children's invisibility and vulnerability, but also for achieving a better understanding of the characteristics and dynamics of IPV. Based on these considerations, we present in this paper the results of a secondary analysis applied to the data obtained in the last Spanish Survey on Violence Against Women. The available information allows us to analyze: 1) the presence of children exposed to IPV, 2) the relationship between this presence and the probability of reporting the violence, and 3) women's perception about the parental role of the aggressors.


gender violence; intimate partner violence; childhood; quantitative analysis

Full Text:



Annerback, E. M., Wingren, G., Svedin, C. G., & Gustafsson, P. A. (2010). Prevalence and characteristics of child physical abuse in Sweden: findings from a population-based youth survey. Acta Paediatrica, 99 (8), 1229-1236.

Araujo, K., Guzmán, V. & Mauro, A. (2000). Surgimiento de la violencia doméstica como problema público y objeto de políticas. Revista de la CEPAL, 70, 133-145.

Cater, Å. (2004). Negotiating Normality and Deviation. Father’s Violence against Mother from Children’s Perspectives. Örebro Studies in social work, 5. Örebro University, Sweden.

Cater, å. & Forsell, A. M. (2014). Descriptions of fathers’ care by children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV): relative neglect and children’s need. Child and Family Social Work, 19 (2), 185-193.

Chang, J. C., Dado, D., Hawker, L. et al. (2010). Understanding turning points in intimate partner violence: Factors and circumstances leading women victims toward change. Journal of Women’s Health, 19 (2), 251-259.

Cunningham, A. & Baker, L. (2004). What about me! Seeking to understand a child’s view of violence in the family. London, ON: Centre for Children & Families in the Justice System.

Enander, V. & Holmberg, C. (2008). Why does she leave? The leaving process(es) of battered women. Health Care for Women International, 29 (3), 200-226.

Eriksson, M. (2002), Men's Violence, Men's Parenting and Gender Politics in Sweden, Nora. Nordic Journal of Women's Studies, 10 (1), 6-15.

Eriksson, M. (2010). Children Who 'Witness' Violence as Crime Victims and Changing Family Law in Sweden, Journal of Child Custody, 7 (2), 93-116.

Eriksson, M. (2011). Contact, shared parenting, and violence: children as witnesses of domestic violence in Sweden, International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 25 (2), 165-183.

Eriksson, M. & Hester, M. (2001). Violent men as good-enough fathers? A look at England and Sweden. Violence Against Women, 7 (7), 779-799.

Eriksson, M. & Näsman, E. (2008). Participation in Family Law Proceedings for Children whose Father is Violent to their Mother. Childhood, 15 (2), 259–275.

Espinar, E. (2006). Violencia de género y procesos de empobrecimiento. Córdoba: Universidad de Córdoba.

Espinar, E. & Mateo, M. A. (2007). Violencia de género: reflexiones conceptuales, derivaciones prácticas, Papers, 86, 189-201.

FRA-European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Main results. Luxemburg: European Union. [28/03/2014].

Goddard, C. & Bedi, G. (2010). Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse: A Child-Centred Perspective. Child Abuse Review, 19 (1), 5-20.

Graham-Bermann, S. A., Castor, L. E., Miller, L. E. & Howell, K. H. (2012). The impact of intimate partner violence and additional traumatic events on trauma symptoms and PTSD in preschool-aged children, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25 (4), 393-400.

Grip, K. (2012). The Damage Done. Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and their Mothers: Towards empirically based interventions in order to reduce negative health effects in children, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.

Guille, L. (2004). Men who batter and their children: An integrated review. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 9 (2), 129–163.

Holden, G. W., Geffner, R. A. & Jouriles, E. N. (1998). Children Exposed to Marital Violence. Theory, Research and Applied Issues. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Holt, S., Buckley, H. & Whelan, S. (2008). The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature, Child Abuse and Neglect, 32 (8), 797-810.

Kuhlman, K. R., Howell, K. H. & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2012). Physical health in preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence, Journal of Family Violence, 27 (6), 499-510.

Levendosky, A. A., Bogat, G. A. & Martínez-Torteya, C. (2013). PTSD symptoms in young children exposed to intimate partner violence, Violence Against women, 19 (2), 187-201.

Martín, E. & Martín, M. (1999). Las violencias cotidianas cuando las víctimas son las mujeres. Madrid: Instituto de la Mujer.

NSPCC (2012). Child abuse and neglect in the UK today. London: NSPCC. Available at [16/05/2014].

Øverlien, C. (2010). Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Conclusions from the Literature and Challenges Ahead, Journal of Social Work, 10 (1), 80-97.

Øverlien, C. & Hydén, M. (2009). Children’s Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence. Childhood. A Journal of Global Child Research, 16 (4), 479–496.

Peled, E. (2000). Parenting by Men Who Abuse Women: Issues and Dilemmas, British Journal of Social Work, 30 (1), 25-36.

Perel, G. & Peled, E. (2008). The fathering of violent men: Constriction and yearning. Violence Against Women, 14 (4), 457-482.

Rodhes, K.V., Cerulli, C., Dichter, M.E., Kothari, C.L. & Barg, F.K. (2010). 'I Didn't Want To Put Them Throught That': The Influence of Children on Victim Decision-making in Intimate Partner Violence Cases. Journal of Family Violence, 25 (5), 485-493.

Rothman, E. F., Mandel, D. G. & Silverman, J. G. (2007). Abusers’ perceptions of the effect of their intimate partner violence on children. Violence Against Women, 13 (11), 1179-1191.

Ruiz, I., Plazaola, J., Vives, C. et al. (2010). Variabilidad Geográfica de la violencia del compañero íntimo en España. Gaceta Sanitaria, 24 (2), 128-135.

Salazar, M., Högberg, U., Valladares, E. & Öhman, A. (2012). The Supportive Process for Ending Intimate Partner Violence After Pregnancy: The Experience of Nicaraguan Women, Violence Against Women, 18 (11), 1257-1278.

Salisbury, E. J., Henning, K. & Holdford, R. (2009). Fathering by Partner-Abusive Men. Attitudes on Children's Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Risk Factors for Child Abuse. Child Maltreatment, 14 (3), 232-242.

Sigma Dos (2006). III Macroencuesta sobre la violencia contra las mujeres. Informe de resultados. Madrid: Instituto de la Mujer.

WHO (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence, Geneve: WHO. Available at [20/06/2013]

Zinzow, H. M., Ruggiero, K. J., Resnick, H. et al. (2009). Prevalence and mental health correlates of witnessed parental and community violence in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50 (4), 441-450.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Copyright (c) 2014 GÉNEROS - Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies

Géneros - Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies | ISSN: 2014-3613

Legal Deposit : B.34284-2012 | |